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r ol. 2 

Cheyenne, July 15, 1924 

No. 1 




(Written in 1886) 

The Indian tribes occupying the section 
nbraced within the limits of what is now 
remont County, when first discovered by 
men, were the Crow nation up to 


$54, and since then by the Shoshones, Ban 
jck and Arapahoe tribes. 

In 1854 the Crows and Shoshones met in 
ittle at Crow Heart Butte on Big Wind 
ver, the Crows led by Big Robber, and the 
loshones by Washakie, in which engage- 
ent the Crows were defeated with loss of 
>me fifty warriors and two children pris- 
i£*s^ one a girl, who is now the wife of 
hief Washakie of the Shoshones, the Sho- 
tones losing only some five or six killed, 
nee that time these tribes have been peace- 
>ly disposed toward each other, and the 
loshones have held this country against all 
mers, the Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahoes 
iding them occasionally, when short en- 
gements were had, in which a few Indians 
)uld be killed or wounded. 
In one of these Chief Washakie lost his 
vorite and eldest son near Strawberry, 
ashakie chiding his son for being slow in 
eparing for battle with the approaching 
oux, the young warrior sprang upon his 
ir horse and rushed boldly on to the ap- 
oaching hostiles and met his death, ap- 
rently with full intent to do so. 
Lewis and Clarke, the first explorers, came 

the Yellowstone in 1806. Gave the name 

Clarks Fork to one branch of same and 
me into the Wind River valley. Prior to 
46 many trappers and hunters came into 
s section, and what is now Fremont Coun- 

among whom were Jim Bridger, Jack 
ibinson, Kit Carson, La Jeunesse Brothers, 
d Papin and Company. In 1846 General 
emont, after whom this county was named, 
plored this section, climbing the highest 
ik of the Wind River range, giving his 
me to same; and he was the first to map 
d make a survey and make it known to 
: world. In 1859 General Lander made a 
•vey and led a party through. Captain 
nneville also explored here in early days; 
o General Reynolds and Lieutenant May- 

rhe experience of emigrants from 1847 to 
iO was full of interest; somet ime s they 
>sed through friendly tribes of IjAus and 
rids of wild game; again fig|fung\their 
y step by step thro 
>ux, Arapahoes, Cheyen 




Shoshones. Many emigrants, hunters, trap- 
pers and explorers were killed by the In- 
dians, of which no record was ever kept. 
Mounds of stone and decaying headboards 
frequently mark the resting place of those 
killed along the line of the emigrant road. 

Chief of the trappers and prospectors first 
within the limits of this country or any oth- 
er were Kit Carson, Jim Bridger, La Jeu- 
nesse, Sorrell, Guerrie, Beaurais, Dock Leon- 
ard, William McCabe, Frank Lone, J. B. 
Macomber, A. A. Conant, Joseph Cornett, 
John Luman, O. S. Clarks and many others 
who early explored, hunted, trapped and pros- 
pected in this country. 

The first prospectors and locators of mines 
at South Pass were from Salt Lake. In the 
summer of 1867 men reached South Pass and 
located the famous Clarissa mine, and on the 
10th of August they were attacked by In- 
dians. They killed Captain Lawrence at the 
Clarissa mine, killed Tony Sholes at Sweet- 
water and captured a man by the name of 
Taylor, whom they burned at the stake about 
two miles back, or north of South Pass. They 
captured 23 head of horses and drove out 
the prospectors, who returned in September 
with large reinforcements and have held the 
county since. 

In the summer of 1868 Jeff Standifer, an 
old western explorer, prospector and Indian 
fighter, left South Pass and Atlantic with six 
other men from these places to prospect on 
the head of Wind River. On the 28th day 
of June while in camp on Big Wind river 
near the mountains, they were attacked by 
a large party of Indians so suddenly that 
they could not secure their horses, which 
were near camp and had not even time to 
make defense. Hank Lehman was killed in 
camp, McAuley was killed near by, Moore 
and Duncan made their escape for a time 
by swimming the river, but were followed to 
Bull Lake, ten miles, and were there killed, 
their remains being found some years after- 
ward and buried at the head of Bull Lake. 
Standifer and one man escaped to the moun- 
tains and made their way into South Pass, 
Standifer slightly wounded in the hand; Andy 
Newman, the present survivor of the party, 
after great hardship and exposure, made his 
way into Little Wind River Valley (now 
Shoshone Agency) where a few men had 
located agricultural claims and were there 
camped. He presented a pitiful appearance, 

early starved and almost 
, bus JeeLlacerated and'fu 
1^ wa^provided for and he then 

to South Pass. 

{Copyright applied for. Copying privileges 
granted by the State Historian) 


Published by the Wyoming State Historical 

State Historical Board 
Governor — William B. Ross 
Secretary of State — F. E. Lucas 
State Librarian — Flo La Chapelle 

State Historian — Mrs. Cyrus Beard 
Secretary of the Board 

Advisory Board 
Rt. Rev. P. A. McGovern, Cheyenne 
Dr. Grace R. Hebard, Laramie 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, Cora 
Mrs. Willis M. Spear, Sheridan 
Mr. R. D. Hawley, Douglas 
Miss Margery Ross, Cody 
Mrs. E. T. Raymond, Newcastle 
Mr. E. H. Fourt, Lander 

Early History of Fremont County 

H. G. Nicker son 

Scenic Conditions in Fremont County 

E. H. Fourt 

Letters A. C. Beckwith 

Pioneer Experiences in Wyoming 

A. L. Brock 

Accessions April to July 

On the second of June the little party of 
seven in Wind River Valley were attacked 
by the same Indians so suddenly that they 
could not save their horses, all of which 
were stolen. Henry Lusk was surrounded 
by Indians, but being well armed stood them 
off, escaping with a broke narm, shot by the 
Indians. Sage C. Nickerson was a short 
distance away looking after the horses, who 
seeing the Indians coming and having no 
weapons with him, ran to a small stream 
(Squaw Creek), got into the willows, then 
in the stream, and the banks being steep and 
overhanging, he managed to get under the 
water with only enough of his head out (but 
under the bank) to breathe. There he re- 
mained while the Indians searched up and 
down the stream for him but they could not 
find him, so they shot the dog that was 
barking around near where he was and which 
might have told the Indians of his hiding 
place. They took all his horses, some of 
which were fine and valuable, and did not 
leave until the night was nearly over. The 
others of the party went to look for Nicker- 
son, whom they supposed was killed, and af- 
ter a long search they found him more dead 
than alive from remaining so long in the 
water, he supposing the Indians to be still 

On the 1st day of August, 1868, the hostile 
Indians attacked Uncle Ben Hurst and Dave 
Hayes eleven miles below the three crossings 
of Sweetwater. They were bringing in some 
groceries for William Tweed of South Pass 
and had one yoke of cattle. The Indians 
shot and fatally wounded Hayes while he 

was in bed on the ground. Hurst being in 
bed in the wagon, they did not see him; he 
got out and stood the Indians off, they mak- 
ing repeated assaults. He then fixed Hayes 
up as best he could, piled rocks around him, 
gave him a gun and ammunition, told him to 
do the best he could and he (Hurst) would 
go to South Pass for help. He had no 
sooner left the wagon than the Indians charg- 
ed upon it, killing Hayes and helping them- 
selves to whatever they wanted. Hurst then 
took the cattle and left for South Pass. He 
being an old English sportsman and a good 
shot, could keep them at a safe distance, so 
he made his way into South Pass, driving 
the cattle before him. A Mormon train came 
along, found the body of Hayes and buried 
it, and left after helping themselves to what 
they wanted from the wagon. 

On Hurst's arrival at South Pass, William 
Tweed accompanied by William Rose and 
Mike Welch, started after the wagon and 
goods. When they got there they found the 
wagon plundered. They waited four days 
for Uncle Hurst to come with the team, he 
having started back with a three yoke team 
of oxen in company with Major N. Baldwin, 
merchant of South Pass, who was going to 
Benton (then the terminus of the U. P. R. 
R.) after freight with two yoke of oxen 
teams, with two drivers named Steve Van 
Camp and Leach and two passengers. They 
were attacked by the Indians at Ice Springs 
on Sweetwater and driven back after a spir- 
ited engagement in which Uncle Hurst was 
wounded in his heel and Leach in his back, 
the Major standing up in the wagons and: 
keeping up a stream of fire on the Indians, 
while the teams turned and retreated back to 
South Pass in safety. Tweed and party af- 
ter waiting days for the teams started back 
to South Pass and were attacked by the In-| 
dians at Three Crossings of Sweetwater^ 
Rose, being mounted on a fine race horse,j 
thought he could outrun the Indians, being| 
followed by Wright, who overtook him in a 
race of one and a half miles and shot him in) 
the back of his head. Welch's horse was shot) 
under him and he escaped into the brush and 
got away. Tweed's mule took fright, rani 
fell down, threw him off and the Indians) 
then surrounded him and shot him slightly) 
in the back. He shot one with a shot gun,j 
cutting him nearly in two, then rushedj 
through their line, crossed a slough which) 
they could not cross while mounted, got into 
the river and brush, and after a day and two 
nights reached South Pass nearly exhausted.; 

In May, 1869, the Indians raided Littles 
Popagie, robbed the Stone ranch wherei 
Frank Morehouse lived, killed him near by 
on the road over to Cottonwood and took 
from his body some $1,500.00. They next) 
met Mountain Bill Rhodes, an old western) 
pioneer and miner, with a four horse team,; 
killed and stripped him, leaving him dead| 
in his wagon; cut his horses out of the har-| 
ness and took them away. Near the samei 
place on Cottonwood they met and killedi 
Dutch Henry, as well as the mule he was 
riding. At the same time on Cottonwood* 
and on what is now the Phil Wisser ranch.) 
they found a peaceable, harmless old French- 

man, named Devereux, planting potatoes in 
his garden. ' They surrounded him, beat him 
down, took the mattock with which he was 
working, drove it into his stomach, twisting 
and pulling his intestines out while he ap- 
parently was yet alive and begging for mercy. 
In this condition he was found and buried 
where he died, and now the ground is cul- 
tivated over his remains and no one can 
point out the spot. His house was plundered 
of everything the inhuman fiends desired to 
take away. In this raid considerable stock 
was stolen from various parties. 

On August 20th, 1869, a man by the name 
oi Camp was killed near the canyon of Lit- 
tle Wind River. Three horses, two rifles, 
pis clothing, ammunition, provisions, etc., 
were taken. The same day a man by the 
lame of Lask was wounded below the Hot 
Springs on Little Wind River. 

On September 29, 1869, John G. Anderson 
yas killed near Miners Delight while hauling 
ime. On the same day a man named Lath- 
im was killed while chopping wood on Big 
\tlantic Gulch. On this raid four men, Aus- 
in and Alkire Brothers were surrounded at 
he crossing of Beaver near Miners Delight 
ly seventeen Indians. The firing being heard 
I Miners Delight, Captain Nickerson speed- 
ly— collected seven men and ran to their res- 
:ue, finding them closely surrounded. A 
ew volleys drove the Indians off; the men 
vere found to be unhurt, but they would 
oon have been taken as their ammunition 
vas nearly all gone. 

On March 31, 1870, Frank Irwin was 
filled on Little Atlantic Gulch, near Atlantic 
pity. William S. Bennington and James 
)thicks were killed on Smith's Gulch near 
jirhere Fort Stambaugh was afterward built 
nd on the same day Eugene Fosberry, John 
»IcGuire and Anson B. Kellogg were killed 
t St. Mary's Station on Sweetwater. Kel- 
3gg lost two valuable horses, harness, pro- 
isions, etc. These men were all terribly 
lutilated and the place where they were 
lurdered showed evidence of a long and hard 

On April 7th, 1870, what is known as the 
U-apahoe raid, or raid on the Arapahoes, 
ook place. The Arapahoe tribe, numbering 
ome four or five hundred warriors, by the 
idvice of Governor Campbell, then Governor 
|f Wyoming, and the reluctant consent of 
tie Shoshone tribe had come upon the Sho- 
hone reservation and were camped on Big 
wind River about thirty miles below where 
ie town of Lander now stands. They prom- 
lied friendly relations with the Shoshones 
nd the white settlers and miners, also prom- 
ing to notify both of the coming of any 
f the northern hostiles with whom they 
r ere at peace. Neither these promises were 
ept, for after their coming, the stealing of 
:ock and killing of whites continued and 
as credited to the Sioux and Cheyennes. 
ut it was suspicioned that the Arapahoes 
here committing the depredations or a part 
I them, or to say the very least would not 
form on other Indians who might be guilty 
'ii;he crimes. But as stolen stock was found 
| -their camp, they claiming to have bought 

from other Indians, they no doubt were 

the guilty parties. And in order to ascer- 
tain the facts, Captain H. G. Nickerson of 
Miner's Delight went alone as a spy to the 
Arapahoe camp on the 31st day of March, 
1870. Being well acquainted with Friday, 
a sub chief, he went to his camp where he 
had a small following of some twenty lodgers 
situated about five hundred yards from the 
main camp under Medicine Man. Nickerson 
had saved Friday's life in the late fall before. 
While Friday was visiting the mining towns 
he drank too much whiskey, lost his road 
between Atlantic and Miner's Delight and 
fell from his horse. The horse came into 
Miner's Delight. Nickerson recognizing it, 
went back on the track, found Friday help- 
less, brought him in and took him to his 
house. One foot was frozen so he lost the 
large toe. Captain Nickerson provided for 
him until he was able to go to his camp on 
Wind River. This humane act saved Nick- 
erson's life while in Friday's camp, for he 
easily made Friday believe he was there on 
a peaceful mission, while the Indians in Medi- 
cine Man's camp devined his real object and 
insisted and demanded that he should be 
killed. This, Friday bravely refused to allow, 
keeping Nickerson in his own lodge and keep- 
ing most of the threatening Indians outside. 
This continued until nearly morning when 
the Indians left, apparently satisfied with Fri- 
day's explanations, but he detected their plan, 
which was to waylay Nickerson and kill him 
on the road when he left in the morning. 
To avoid this, Friday got him ready just be- 
fore daybreak, sent a faithful brave with him 
in an opposite direction with instruction 
which way to go after leaving the river, mak- 
ing a long detour and coming on to the home 
trail far beyond the Indians lying in wait for 
him. In this manner he escaped and April 
Fooled the Indians, but learned while in the 
camp of the Arapahoes, that Little Shield, a 
young war chief, and all of the young war- 
riors were out of camp and over on Sweet- 
water, as the Indians said, on a buffalo hunt. 
The next day, after a hard ride he reached 
home and first learned of the killing at St. 
Mary's, and Atlantic City above mentioned, 
which was done on the same day he reached 
the Indians' camp. It is now believed by 
all that the Arapahoes were doing the killing 
and a force of about two hundred and sev- 
enty-five men were speedily raised, well 
armed and equipped, and on the 7th of April 
reached Big Popoagie Valley. One Bill 
Smith, a reckless and desperate man (killed 
a year later in Atlantic City in a street 
brawl), was chosen Commander-in-Chief be- 
cause of his fearless and dare-devil disposi- 
tion, although he had never been in the Arap- 
ahoe camp and knew nothing about them. 
He took the seventy-five mounted men, plac- 
ed Nickerson in command of the two hun- 
dred foot men, the wagon train and navy 
yard, with orders to follow down the river 
after him. He struck out in the early morn- 
ing in full daylight to find and annihilate 
the Indians, while the Indians could see him 
approaching for twenty miles. He, however, 
met Black Bear and his squaw and a small 
band of Arapahoes coming up to the Camp 
Brown (where Lander now stands) to trade. 

He killed Chief Black Bear and all of the 
grown male Indians and two squaws, letting 
two squaws escape to go back to the main 
camp to give the alarm. There were killed 
in all fourteen bucks, two squaws and one 
squaw and child, Black Bear's and seven 
children captured. These children were af- 
terwards placed in families and raised among 
the whites, one returning to the Shoshone 
Agency in 1884 a full fledged Episcopal min- 
ister. He found at this Agency the Arapahoe 
tribe and among them his mother. Their rec- 
ognition was mutual, although he had grown 
to manhood since last she saw him. After 
the killing of the Indians on Big Popoagie 
the two squaws escaped, ran back to the 
camp and gave the alarm. The Indians at 
once pulled up stakes and left. The poor 
weary footmen after a forty mile tramp came 
into Smith's camp on Big Wind River where 
he had made up large fires and the Indians 
could easily have returned in the night and 
killed or driven awr- the whole party, but 
they were in full retreat and too badly fright- 
ened to come back in force. About fifteen 
or twenty came back and fired into Smith's 
big camp fires, causing them to be put ef- 
fectually, speedily and permanently out. The 
expedition returned home worse than a fail- 
ure, for instead of annihilating the Indians, 
as they easily could have done had they gone 
in the night time and surrounded the camp, 
they only succeeded in making the Indians 
more embittered and thirsty for revenge 
which they fully obtained in the years im- 
mediately following. 

In April, 1870, William McCabe and James 
Goodson, two hunters and prospectors, were 
camped near the head of Little Popoagie 
when Goodson went down to the mouth of 
the canyon to their last camp to get an old 
coffee pot they had left. He was attacked 
by a small party of Indians, who first in good 
English tried to persuade him to come up 
on the hill where they were, but he, fearing 
treachery, would not go. When they fired 
on him he managed to get good cover and 
killed Knocknee, a well known Arapahoe, and 
one other and severely wounded several, es- 
caping with only a slight wound in the back. 
The bodies of the two dead Indians were 
afterwards found, one the next day where 
it fell and the other months afterward where 
the Indians had thrown it in the creek. 

On May 10th, 1870, the Indians attacked 
Jason Sherman and party at daylight on 
Twin Creek Hill. He had freight, teams and 
cattle. He stood the Indians off but they 
took all his cattle grazing near by. Major 
David Gordon, commanding Company D, 
2nd Cavalry, stationed near Atlantic City, 
soon made his appearance and pursued the 
Indians, and in a hot engagement with them, 
in which several Indians appeared to be killed 
or wounded, Lieutenant Stambaugh, after 
whom Ft. Stambaugh was afterward named, 
was shot dead from his horse, his body falling 
for a time into the hands of the Indians who 
robbed it of a watch, ring, his revolver and 
belt, the contents of his pockets, etc. They 
shot into his body several times, after which 
the company rallied and recovered the body. 
Sergeant Brown was severely wounded, hav- 

ing his chin and part of his jaw carried away 
by a bullet. The Indians escaped with Sher- 
man's cattle and much other stock which 
they picked up. 

On June 17, 1870, Oliver Lamoureaux was 
killed on the Point of Rocks road, some 
thirty miles south of Atlantic City. The In- 
dians took from his body a fine gold watch, 
considerably money and two horses. John 
Pelon, an old timer still living near Lander, 
was with him and made a miraculous escape 
on the open prairie by keeping the Indians 
at a distance with a well managed rifle. Lam- 
oureaux was killed by a volley fired by the 
Indians in ambush. 

August 25, 1870, the Indians killed Dr. 
Barr, Harvey Morgan and Jerome Mason 
near Willow Creek, between Big and Little 
Popoagie, taking four horses and a large 
lot of provisions. These men made a brave 
stand and hard fight, but were overpowered 
by the two hundred Arapahoes that sur- 
rounded them where they could get no shel- 
ter. Morgan was well known to the Indians, 
having often fed and befriended them, and 
for his friendship he was mutilated in a hor- 
rible manner, the sinews being cut from his 
back and limbs for bow strings and the queen 
bolt of his wagon being driven so far into 
his forehead so that it could not be pulled 
out, but was buried with him as found. Thisj 
party of Indians then attacked W. A. Barrett 
at his ranch near Red Canyon, shooting a 
bullet through his beard, but getting into his 
dugout and being well armed he stood them 
off, and they left. Going to South Pass, they 
captured two hundred head of fine horses 1 
and mules belonging to the miners and pros- 
pectors, and in charge of Lawrence Hunt and' 
Negro Joe who were herding them. They 1 
were pursued by Lieutenant Robinson with 
a company of the 2nd cavalry from Fortj 
Washakie, but they made their escape with- 
out loss. 

On October 9, 1872, Michael Henan, while 
hauling hay, was killed on Big Beaver Hillj 
near Miner's Delight. From his team, four] 
valuable mules were taken. At this raid an 
incident occurred that came near costing the; 
lives of two of the miners of Miner's Delight. 
The next day after Hennan was killed, two 
miners from Miner's Delight, Tom Logan' 
and Bobby Smith, who had gone hunting., 
failed to return, and as it was known that; 
they had gone in the direction the hostiles' 
had been, it was supposed they too had been 
killed. In order to find them and relieve them' 
if alive, or bury them if dead, Captain Nick- 
erson raised a party of nine men consisting : 
of John Grant, Joe Trickey, John Hartley,- 
George McKay, Ed. Blanchard, William Kin-; 
ner, Val Brant, Arch Cameron and Chris 
Ranley. Packing some supplies on an old 
pinto pony that the Indians never would take.t 
they started on the hunt for their lost com-t 
panions and when some miles away, between 
Strawberry and Beaver Creeks, they were 
discovered by scouts from Fort Stambaugh 
who took them for Indians and immediately 
signalled the alarm to the Fort. The reporll 
spread that the country was full of Indians! 
The entire military and civilian forces weW 
at once ordered out and soon surrounded tii 

hapless miners, who at first thought it a good 
joke on the military but soon realized their 
eminent peril when they found they could 
not make the forces surrounding them un- 
derstand that they were not Indians. They 
were taken at a great disadvtange, being on 
a slight elevation, with others all around 
them still higher. Now they were complete- 
ly surrounded, a company of cavalry below 
them on Beaver Creek to their right, a com- 
pany of infantry was deployed and advanc- 
ing to the left, a cestion of artillery was tak- 
ing position in front, and nearest on the same 
ridge was a mixed command of soldiers, citi- 
zens and employees of the Post. Nickerson, 
seeing that something must be done prompt- 
ly or he and his men would be swept from 
the face of the earth, ordered his men to lay 
first flat upon the ground in the short sage 
brush and then he would make another and 
more desperate attempt to disclose to the 
nearest troops who he was. The party in 
:ront were not more than five hundred yards 
iway at this time, and he started on a quick 
walk towards them, alone, holding out his 
*un in full view, dropping it to the ground, 
still advancing with uplifted arms and shout- 
ng to them not to shoot. But he could plain- 
y see they intended to shoot, and one citizen, 
;hs» best shot <n the party, knelt down, took 
deliberate aim and fired, the ball striking 
jnly a few yards in front of Nickerson, who 
:ontinued to advance, but he could see the 
vhole party was now aiming to shoot and at 
jhe first puff of smoke he fell flat to the 
jround and the volley went over him and fell 
imong his comrades, but fortunately hit 
lone. He then jumped and ran back to them, 
:aking his gun with him. But one chance 
low presented itself and that was for each 
nan to break for himself and get cover 
vithin the cordon now around them and 
iwait their near approach so that they could 
alk and be understood. This they did, gain- 
ng the bank of beaver and concealing them- 
selves in the brush until the troops came so 
lear that they could be plainly heard and 
alked to, when Nickerson went out and ex- 
ilained the situation. Then the troops re- 
urned to the Post very much disappointed 
it not being able to dispose of a band of In- 
[ians so completely in their power. In the 
neantime the telegraph had flashed the news 
;ast and west that Ft. Stambaugh was be- 
ieged by Indians and a terrible battle was 
aging. Logan and Smith came in a day 
til right, having seen no Indians. 

On the 24th day of July, 1873, Mrs. Hattie 
lall and Mrs. L. Richardson were killed and 
hockingly mutilated on Big Popoagie, where 
_,ander now stands. Their houses were plun- 
tered of goods and over a thousand dollars 
ti money taken, also some watches and val- 
lable jewelry. The Indians watched from 
he hills until the men had nearly all gone 
rom the valley to the mountains after tim- 
ier, when they rushed down upon the help- 
ess women and murdered them in the most 
irutal and fiendish manner possible. They 
lso killed and wounded several cattle from 
mre cussedness. 

On June 28th the Arapahoes surrounded 
id Yount's house at the mouth of Little' 

Popoagie canyon in the night. They kept 
him in by shooting at him, broke open his 
stable and took a fine span of horses, which 
they for some unaccountable reason, killed 
some miles from there on Twin Creek. 

On the 29th day they attacked Joe Faris 
and Sam Rhon while they were working on 
the road in Red Canyon, but the Indians 
found their match, for the boys not only 
stood them off and saved their horses, but 
wounded and probably killed one of the In- 
dians. One day Ed Young and John R. 
Smith ran on to one of these Indians at the 
head of Red Canyon, ran him down into the 
Canyon where Tom Anton was camped. The 
Indian broke for Tom's horse but Tom saw 
him coming and shooting commenced. The 
Indian was armed with a Henry rifle and 
shot close and fast, but Tom downed him 
and he was afterward boiled up by Hospital 
Steward Dodge of Fort Stambaugh in order 
to secure his skeleton. 

On the 4th day of July, 1874, Captain Bates 
with Company B, 2nd Cavalry, and Lieu- 
tenant Young with eighty Shoshones 
(scouts), attacked the Arapahoes about four 
or five hundred strong on the head of North 
Wood River, killed forty or fifty and routed 
and drove the rest off, losing Corporal Walk- 
er and one private killed. Lieutenant Young 
lost three scouts, killed, and several wounded 
and himself wounded. 

In the winter of 1876, five men from Lan- 
der were hunting and trapping down Big 
Wind River and were all killed. Their bod- 
ies were found the following spring. Two of 
them, Thomas Cook and Spencer, were killed 
near the mouth of Bridger Creek and their 
camp plundered. James Lisight, B. C. An- 
derson and one Davis werx killed on what 
is now called Lisight Creek about two miles 
from Bridger Creek and one of its tributaries. 
Their camp was also robbed of everything 
the Indians wanted. 

In the spring of 1877 a party of miners 
from Fort McKinney was attacked on the 
Dry Fork of Bad Water and two of their 
number killed, names not known. Barney 
Hill, of the party, was shot through five 
times and left for dead, but came to and 
by crawling most of the way, reached Sweet- 
water River where he was found several 
days later by prospectors and was brought 
to J. M. Bied's place on Willow Creek and 
from there taken to the Post hospital where 
he fully recovered. He afterward committed 
suicide in Montana. 

In April, 1877, thirteen Arapahoes stole 
thirteen head of horses and mules from Lan- 
der, and were followed by nine men seventy 
miles to Muskrat, where they were overtaken 
and a sharp fight ensued, in which John Mc- 
Cullom and Pap Conant were wounded and 
several horses killed. It was thought two 
or three Indians were killed or several 
wounded. At one time the whites got pos- 
session of all the horses, but during the 
fight, the Indians re-took them and then 
hard pressed the whites half way back to 

In the summer of 1882 some Northern In- 
dians robbed the camp of A. S. Bruce, also 
the camp of Andy Larson on Beaver. They 

were followed by Bruce and others and over- 
taken on Big Popoagie below Lander. A 
sharp engagement followed in which two In- 
dians were fatally wounded. This same party 
of Indians came upon a Mexican by the 
name of Artecinario and a white man by 
the name of Lew Blanchard on the Big 
Horn River, and then killed them both. This 
was the last killing known of in this county, 
but many more than those enumerated ,have 
lost their lives at the hands of the hostile 
Indians, as frequently remains are found of 
some hopeless miner, prospector, hunter or 
emigrant that no one knows anything about. 

Several persons have been frozen to death 
and many crippled for life. Three soldiers 
stationed at Stambaugh were at different 
times lost in the storms and frozen to death. 
In 1880, a soldier from Fort Washakie was 
lost on Twin Creek Hill and frozen to death. 
In 1870, S. C. Nickerson and Charley Stade 
were lost in a storm at the head of Red 
Canyon. Stade gave out and would go no 
further and was found the next day with 
his feet frozen solid to the ankles, from the 
effects of which he died. Nickerson made 
his way in the night near to Miners Delight 
and made his whereabouts known by con- 
tinued firing to his gun, which was heard 
by his brother and others, who went to his 
rescue and found him exhausted in a blinding 

On January 31, 1883, Maggie Sherlock, 
daughter of Mrs. James Smith of South 
Pass, was passenger on the coach enroute to 
Green River. When near Dry Sandy Sta- 
tion, the driver, George Ryder, lost his way 
and they were found two days afterward so 
badly frozen that they both died from the 
effects after many days suffering. 

During the same storm, another driver, 
James Scott, and a passenger, N. V. Clark, 
residing on Willow Creek, were overtaken 
by the storm. Their team gave out and 
both froze to death. Clark wandered off 
from the road and was not found until a 
week afterwards, when his body was taken 
to his family. W. J. Stuart, Superintendent 
of the stage line, was lost with these last 
parties. He wandered for two days and was 
accidentally found, blind and nearly dead. 
He recovered however, but was terribly muti- 
lated, losing a part of both feet, all of his 
fingers, his nose and ears. In the same storm, 
Al Daugherty lost his way near Big Sandy 
Station and was found next day, nearly dead. 
He recovered but was terribly crippled, los- 
ing one leg below the knee, a part of the 
other foot and all of his fingers. 

The first permanent settlers were William 
Evans, James Rodgers, Tilford Kutch, U. P. 
Davidson, Steve Geni in 1868 on Little Wind 
River in what is now the Shoshone reserva- 
tion. In the same year, Birch, Austin Likely, 
Saylor and Shafer settled in the valley of 
Big Popoagie. In 1869, John R. Murphy, 
and J. G. Faris settled in the valley of Big 
Popoagie. In 1869, John R. Murphy, and 
J. G. Faris settled on Little Popoagie and in 
the same year W. A. Barrett and William 
Tweed settled in Red Canyon. These men 
held their ground against frequent invasions 
of hostile Indians, having many conflicts 

with them and many narrow escapes and 
were frequently robbed of their stock, andi 
for years could scarcely subsist, but most 
of them held on to their locations and remain 
there today. 

I Gold was known to exist in the Sweetwa- 
ter County many years prior to the stampede 
in 1867. Emigrants to California had found 
gold on Strawberry and on the Sweetwater. 
Soldiers had found and mined gold to a lim- 
ited extent at different places. The Indians 
had found both gold and gold bearing quartz 
and brought it from the Sweetwater country 
to Fort Bridger and other settlements west, 
until this country was looked upon as a good 
field for explorers. In 1867 Louis Robinson 
brought the first sufficient amount of gold 
into Fort Bridger to induce a stampede and 
eight men went into the mines^_j Henry Re- 
dell, Harry Hubbell, Frank Marshall, Josh 
Terry and brother, one Davis and two others 
first discovered the famous "Clarissa Mine" 
and the Clarissa Gulch, where South Pass 
was afterward built, these and other parties 
being driven away by Indians. Willow Creek, 
Big and Little Hermit for Placer! In At- 
lantic, The Carriboo, Young America, Soule 
and Perkins, Mary Ellen, Jim Dyer and oth- 
er valuable lodes were found and worked. 
Rock Creek, Little Beaver, Atlantic Gulch 
and Smith's Gulch and many other placers 
were worked with success and rich results. 
In Miners Delight, the famous Miners De- 
light Lode was discovered by Holbrook, 
McGovern, Pugh, Manson, Eads, Livingston, 
Major Gallagher, Dick Rice and George 
Owens. The same party also discovered and 
located Spring Gulch, in which the town of ; 
Miners Delight was built. This gulch and 
mine proved very rich and is still being 
worked. There was also discovered in this 
vicinity the Bennett, Peabody, Barthlow and 
San Juan lodes, and in placer the Meadow 
Gulch, Yankee Gulch, Poor Man's Gulch, 
Horace Gulch, Irish Gulch, Stambaugh 
Gulch, Promise Gulch and Placereta Gulch, 
all of which were mined out and yielded rich 
returns. The Strawberry Creek, Diggings, 
two miles south of Miners Delight, were as 
mysterious as they were rich. All of the, 
gulches and sags and some of the flats at or] 
near the head of Strawberry Creek, were rich 
in placer gold but no quartz could ever be 
found, and as it was not a washed country, 
no drift, glacial, river or ocean deposits butj 
primitive formation showed plainly every- 
where. It was and still is a mystery, where] 
the gold came from. Many thousand dollars 
worth was taken out mostly by the Rocker,, 
or Tom process or by hauling the dirt toil 
water, as the water was very scarce there! 
and in many places there was none at all. 

At Lewiston a rich placer and lode were 
discovered in June, 1880, the placer by Henry 
Lovewell and James Harding and the bullionj' 
lode by the Nickerson Brothers. The mineSI 
in this county are all gold, free milling! 
quartz, and the placers; pure washed gold* 
of a coarse nature and easily saved. The 
placers have been nearly exhausted where 
worked on a small scale by the ordinary 
cheap process of sluicing, toming or rockin, 
but rich results will yet be realized by the 

more improved appliances working by hy- 
draulic process. 

The richest quartz mines have been work- 
ed to water level and to where the surface 
disturbances made the labor and expense 
greater. Work has been suspended, capital 
only being needed to prove them lasting and 
productive of rich returns when developed 
to a sufficient extent to properly test them. 
This will be done in time and the Sweet- 
water mines will take rank among the best 
on the continent. The great drawback to 
the development of these mines was first, the 
many years conflict with the Indians, when 
the miner had to work with his gun in his 
hand or by his side all the time, not knowing 
[what moment he would have use for it and 
need it badly. Again many unprincipled men 
deceived parties and men of means all over 
the United States by the salting dodge, in 
placing gold or rich quartz in worthless lodes 
with which the county abounds and then tak- 
ng the unsuspecting victim to the prospect, 
selling it to him and then skipping out. Such 
in act is a crime under our law, punishable 
)y a severe penalty. This was done so suc- 
:essfully and so repeatedly, that parties all 
over the United States were bilked and left 
n^-jdisgust, spreading the report that the 
Sweetwater mines were the biggest frauds 
n the world, so that it is next to impossible 
:o induce capital to come into these mines 
and develop them, notwithstanding the fact 
:hat in a few years they have yielded not 
ess than three millions in gold. There have 
been many mills built at these mines, some 
of which are running, some idle, while others 
pave been moved away to other mining re- 

There was built in South Pass in 1869 the 
[irst quartz mill, a five stamp water power, 
oy Tosier, Eddy and Roberts; 

In 1869 a ten stamp steam mill by Jim 
Mills and Louie Engle; 

In 1869 a ten stamp steam mill on Big 
Hermit by Hall, Sneath, Schaun & Co.; 
I In 1869 a ten stamp steam mill on Little 
Hermit by Kidder and Mason; 

In 1871 a ten stamp steam mill on Big 
Hermit by E. Amoretti; 
• In 1871 a ten stamp steam mill on Little 
Hermit by J. D. Farmer. 

There was first a ten stamp steam mill at 
\tlantic City built by Dr. James Irwin in 
.869 and in 1869 a ten stamp steam mill 
yas built just above Atlnatic City by Tom 
Collins. In 1869 a thirty stamp steam mill 
vas built on the Mammoth Lode near At- 
antic by Colonel Elliott. This was built 
ki a salted lode. In 1869 a twenty stamp 
nill was built in Atlantic Gulch by the Lake 
Brothers. In 1869 a ten stamp water mill 
vas built on Rock Creek by Mr. Rice. In 
870 a ten stamp steam mill was built just 
idow Atlantic City on Rock Creek by 
/Vheeler & Hull. In 1875 a ten stamp steam 
nill was built on Rock Creek above Atlantic 
>y Poire & Furgerson. At Miners Delight 
n 1870, the Miners Delight ten stamp steam 
nill was built by Holbrook, Walsh, McGov- 
rn and Pugh. In 1873 the Hartley mill, a 
en stamp steam mill, was built in Miners 
Delight by Fontain, Hartley and Robinson. 

In 1881 a ten stamp steam mill was built 
in Lewiston by Martin Lewis. 

Life sketch of the first to introduce any 
considerable number of cattle for grazing, 
when where, with results: 

William Boyd brought in the first stock 
of cattle in 1869, ranged them on the head- 
waters of the Poposias. In 1874 Robert Hall, 
J. K. Moore, Jules Lamoureux, Scoffey 
Brothers & Cuney, W. P. Noble, James Kinn 
and others ranged cattle on the Poposia, 
Beaver and Wind River valleys successfully 
and with great profit. At this time, 1885, 
among the largest stock cattle owners are 
the Wyoming Land & Cattle Company, Cap- 
tain R. A. Torry, Qlto Fran c. Carter Cattle 
Company, R. H. Hall, E. Amoretti, John 
Lee, John Luman, Richard Ashworth, Count 
De Dore, S. A. Wilson, E. P. Livingston, 
George W. Baxter, Henry Belknap, Dickin- 
son & McDonald, Signor & Brown, John 
Werlen, C. W. Crowley, Big Horn Cattle 
Company, D. J. Jones, Rothwell & Sliney, 
Joseph Cornett, Mrs. A. O'Neil, Jevon Pick- 

William Tweed, an Englishman, was the 
first to introduce sheep raising. He settled 
in Red Canyon in 1870, brought two hundred 
sheep as an experiment, which proved suc- 
cessful. Having no disease, being of hardy 
breed, they withstood the winter well, but 
required close herding and night corralling 
near the house to prevent their destruction 
by wild animals, such as wolves, bears, moun- 
tain lions, lynx and wild cats, with which 
the country was over run and which killed 
many of his sheep in spite of his utmost 

It being demonstrated that sheep would 
thrive and do well here if the prevailing dis- 
ease, the scab, was kept in check, and the 
wild animals killed off, many others engaged 
in the business and are still so engaged, 
among whom are Bruce J. McTurk & Poire, 
James Irwin, Hornicker & Movers, Noble 
& DeWolf, William O'Brien, J. E. Morrison, 
J. B. Okie, Woodruff Brothers, Amoretti & 
Bragg, Logan & Huff, J. La Hoar, Hood & 
Ralston, A. H. Bright, Kime & Miller, Henry 
Sherman and others. Sheep raising has gen- 
erally proved a success, the severe winters 
being the greatest drawback. The disease, 
scab, can be kept down. In consequence of 
a liberal bounty being paid by the territory, 
the wild animals that destroy sheep are fast 
disappearing, and sheep-husbandry in the 
future will be one of the leading industries 
of Fremont County, the bounty on wolves 
being $1.50, lynx and wild cats, 25 cents, 
hawks 25 cents, bears $5.00, and mountain 
lions $5.00. 

The first to engage in the business of horse 
raising for the market were Orson Grimmett 
and L. P. Vidal, who in 1876 introduced 
horse raising and have continued in the busi- 
ness ever since with success and profit. They 
were followed by John Gillis and A. P. Bat- 
trum who brought in horses for breeding 
purposes in 1867, and the latter is still en- 
gaged in the business, successfully. They 
were followed by John Gillis and A. P. Bat- 
trum first, then by Andy Chapman, J. W. 
Chapman, Count Du Dore, Hanks Brothers, 

J. C. Johnson, A. McKenzie, John B. Gleaver, 
A. B. Wilson, Harry Brownson and many 
others with marked success, as horses with- 
stand the cold better than any other kind of 
stock. There are in the southern part of 
this country large numbers of wild beasts 
(horses), those that have escaped from their 
owners or escaped their range, generally 
banding together in small bands, herded by 
some young stallion that has beaten off all 
rivals after terrible battles, in which the van- 
quished generally loses his life. Here they 
flourish, grow fat and rapidly increase. Oc- 
casionally some of these bands are captured 
by relays of pursuers or by tolling them into 
inclosures with tame horses. 

The first attempt to cultivate the soil in 
this county was successfully made by W. A. 
Barrett on Barrett's Creek, a tributary of 
Red Canyon, in 1869, where for a number 
of years he sold to the mining towns nearly 
all kinds of vegetables at a high price. Oth- 
ers followed in the business, among whom 
were J. G. Farris, Ed. Young, Louie Miller 
and Andy Larson. From these small begin- 
nings in vegetable productions, larger tracts 
were cultivated with an increasing acreage 
each year. The fertile valleys of Big and 
Little Popoagie are largely under cultivation. 
Twin Creek, Beaver and Sweetwater are cul- 
tivated to a considerable extent with good 
results and profit. Also the valley of Little 
Wind River on the Shoshone reservation is 
successfully cultivated by the early settlers, 
who are permitted to remain there by reason 
of their location prior to making the reser- 
vation. Nearly all kinds of vegetables and 
cereals mature in these valleys except corn, 
the hardier and earliest kinds alone ripening. 
Sufficient of these productions are raised here 
for home consumption, including the supply- 
ing of the military at Ft. Washakie and em- 
ployees and force at the military agency. Ex- 
port we cannot, for want of facilities. Hay 
for home consumption, for the military 
agency, can be had at from seven to ten 
dollars per ton, oats at two to two and a half 
cents per pound. 

The grazing industry has been uniformly 
successful. The first herds were kept near 
the foot hills of .the Wind River range but 
as that portion became settled up, the herds 
as they increased were ranged lower down 
on the Beaver, the lower Sweetwater, then 
over the Owl Creek range on to the Owl 
Creek, upper Wind River, Greybull, Stinking 
Water, No Wood and Big Horn Rivers. 
Sheep and horses, being closer herded, take 
the place of the receding herds of cattle, and 
now are found mostly near the Wind River 
mountains, wintering on Twin Creek, Beaver, 
Bad Water, Sweetwater and Wind River. 

Agriculture is yet in its infancy in this 
county. The production only being what is 
needed for home consumption and while 
there could be vast amounts of grain and 
vegetables produced, there being no adequate 
means of transportation, a surplus is not pro- 
duced. The lands are very productive, yield- 
ing as high as bushels per acre of oats 

and -per acre of potatoes and other 

things in proportion except corn, which as 
yet has not proved successful. There is as 

yet no extensive ditching done, each farmer! 
having an independent ditch for his own use, 
but occasionally several combine and take: 
out enough water for their use, collectively. 
The water is plentifully supplied from the 
numerous mountain streams. 

The first saw mill was built on Mitt Creek 
near South Pass in 1868, by Charles Decker.j 
Another was built on Slate Creek near At- 
lantic in 1869, by Major Anthony, another 
near South Pass in 1869 by Janson Sherman, 
another near the Jiead of Rock Creek in 1869 
by William M. Hinman. From these mills 
most of the lumber was obtained in the; 
year 1868, with which in the years following 
the towns of South Pass, Atlantic, Miners 
Delight and Fort Stambaugh were built, and 
from which the lumber was obtained with 
which the mining was carried on in the pros- 
perous mining days. In 1885 Emil Granier 
built a saw mill at the head of Rock Creek 
with which to cut the large amount of lum- 
ber necessary to construct the many flumes 
on his mining ditch and for other purposes 
connected with his mining and building. On 
Twin Creek and its tributaries William 
Tweed has now and has had for many years 
a portable saw mill, from which the lumber 
supply for fencing, building and mining is 
had. In 1876 Samuel Fairfield built a saw 
mill on Big Popoagie and in 1880 A. T. 
Wilson built a saw mill on North Fork and 
moved and rebuilt same on Big Popoagie in 
1883; and in 1883 Perry Townsend built a 
saw mill on Big Popoagie and from these 
mills the lumber supply for Lander, North 
Fork, the Agenc}^ and Fort Washakie was 
mostly obtained. And they, at the time, 
1885, contnue to produce the needed supply. 

The first and only flouring mill built in 
this county was built in 1880 by A. T. Wilson 
on North Fork, where it is now in operation. 
This is run by water power from the North 
Fork River. 

The first bank in what is now Fremont 
County was opened in South Pass in 1869 
by Illif & Company and was managed by 
Judge Amos Steck. This was a private in- 
stitution and did business mostly in the pur- 
chase of gold dust and the shipment of same 
for mining parties. In 1875, E. Amoretti, 
Son & Company built and opened a bank in 
Lander, which is now in a prosperous and 
flourishing condition, doing a general bank- 
ing business with E. Amoretti, Sr., President, 
and Samuel C. Parks, Jr., Cashier. In South 
Pass in the years 1868 to 1870, William Er- 
vin, N. Baldwin, A. Houghton, J. D. Farmer, 
E. Amoretti, Lightburn Brothers, Gilder- 
sieve Brothers and many others engaged in 
mercantile business with varying success. At 
this time, James Smith alone keeps a general 
supply store there. In the early years ai 
Atlantic City, Leighton Brothers, Hoffman 
& Company, Cash Melin, Jules Lamoureaux. 
E. Amoretti and others engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits, and later Louis Poire, and ai 
this time Robert McAuley alone keeps a 
general store in Atlantic City. At Miners 
Delight, John Curry, George McKay, John 
Dillabough, John Yancy and the Miners De- 
light Mining Company did trading, and now 
the old stand-by, James Kime, alone supplies 

the wants of all in a general store. At Ron- 
gis, Signor Brothers, and now E. A. Signor 
keeps general supply store. At Lander the 
first store was opened by Henry Molson in 
1874, followed by Dickinson & Kime in 1875, 
followed later by N. Baldwin, E. Amoretti, 
James I. Patten, J. K. Moore, L. Poire, 
•Noble Lane; all except the first two still 
peing in the business and doing well. Mr. 
Patten also keeps a drug store, Mrs. C. K. 
Kiriland a millinery store and Chalmers & 
[Burnett have a harness store and supply raw 
'or manufactured materials. 

In early days, Major N. Baldwin kept a 
trading post at Double Log Cabins on the 
Popoagie, then on Baldwin Creek, later in 
1872 and 1874 was post trader at Fort Stam- 
baugh. At Fort Washakie, J. K. Moore is 
and has been for ten years, post trader and 
Indian trader with good success. At the 
Shoshone Agency, Noble & Land have a 
store and are Indian traders. At North Fork, 
Ben Sheldon and J. K. Moore kept stores for 
several years, but the business not proving 
lucrative, they gave up the store at that 
place. At Meeteetse, A. B. Wilson has a 
country store, and at Corbett, Arland & Cor- 
bett keep a small store. 

J£he first road traveled to any extent 
throtfgh this County was the Overland Cali- 
fornia Emigrant Road, up the Sweetwater 
hrough the South Pass at Pacific Springs 
nd so on across the Sandies and Green River 
nd into Salt Lake. This was first traveled 
y traders of the American Fur Company 
under John B. Provo of St. Louis. In 1847 
the Great Mormon Hegira traveled this route 
to their Salt Lake Mecca with their wheel- 
barrows, hand carts and nondescript vehicles, 
ed by Brigham Young. In 1859 General 
[Lander made survey and laid out a road 
through this county from Burnt Ranch on 
weetwater to the upper crossing of Green 
iver, thence to Oregon via Bear Lake, Utah, 
taking with him a train of emigrants and 
making a good road. 

The road from South Pass to Lander, Fort 
Washakie and Meeteetse was a natural In- 
dian and game trail, traveled by the first 
prospectors and settlers, afterward improved 
by the settlers and later by the county. The 
same is true of all the other roads in the 
ounty; mostly natural roads and very good 
for a mountainous country. No bridges of 
mportance have yet been constructed in the 
:ounty. What few there are have been built 
ay private enterprise or at the expense of the 

In the early days of what is now Fremont 
County, many engaged in the freighting 
business. W. P. Noble was extensively en- 
aged in the freighting business to Fort 
Btambaugh and the mines, in which business 
le formed the nucleus of a fortune, which 
was afterward made in stock raising in the 
Popoagie and Beaver Valleys. Many others 
ngaged in hauling freight from Bryan, Green 
River, Point of Rocks and Rawlins on the 
Union Pacific Railroad to the mining towns 
n this county and to Ft. Stambaugh and 
Washakie and the Shoshone Agency. Among 
he earlier ones were Chrisman Brothers, 
Tom McGuire, T. Brown, N. H. Scott, Dan 

McDonald, M. Kellshire, John Arnold, Harry 
Burke, Sam Fairfield and many others. Some 
of the above are still engaged in the busi- 
ness, but sharp competition and the low rates 
paid for freight from the railroad now makes 
the business a precarious one and scarcely 
paying expenses. The earlier freighters made 
money, receiving from three to five cents per 
pound, while now only one and one-fourth to 
two cents is paid to same points. 

The first freighting through which is now 
Fremont County, was as early as 1857. Ma- 
jors and Russell freighted on the Overland 
Emigrant Road from the Missouri River 
west, and supplied Johnson's army when 
marching on Utah. One train in charge of 
one Simpson, was attacked and burned up 
by the Mormons at what is now called Simp- 
son's Hollow, near Big Sandy. 

The first ctage line was on the old Cali- 
fornia Overland Road from St. Joseph, Mis- 
souri, to Salt Lake, Utah, run by McGraw 
who carried a monthly mail. The outfit con- 
sisted of a coach and baggage wagon. This 
was prior to 1855. In 1856, the Mormons 
ran a weekly stage and mail from Atchison 
to Salt Lake. In 1857, Jones Brothers ran 
a stage line from Leavenworth to Bridger. 
In 1860, Ben Hockerty ran a weekly stage 
and mail from Leavenworth to Bridger. In 
1861, the King of Stagers, Benjamin Holli- 
day, put on the Overland daily stage, carry- 
ing mail and express from Atchison to San 
Francisco. Also in 1860-61 Holliday ran the 
famous Overland Daily Pony Express from 
Atchison to San Francisco. In 1862 Holli- 
day was compelled to move his line further 
south on to the Bitter Creek route to secure 
greater safety from the northern hostile In- 
dians, Sioux, Arapahoes and Cheyennes, who 
attacked his stations and stages, killed many 
of his drivers and employees, stole hundreds 
of thousands of dollars, and made it next to 
impossible to carry on the business on this 
route. The building of the Union Pacific 
Railroad took the freight, express and mail 
across the continent and destroyed the busi- 
ness of the overland trade. 

When the mining excitement broke out in 
the Sweetwater country, Alex Benham put 
on a daily stage, mail and express line from 
Bryan to South Pass in 1869. In 1870 he 
put a line on the Point of Rocks route, 
from Point of Rocks to South Pass. William 
Larimer also put on a daily line of stages 
from Point of Rocks to South Pass for one 
season, when that route was abandoned. Ben- 
ham continued the Bryan route until succeed- 
ed by C. C. Huntley & Company in 1871, 
who in 1872 changed the route from Bryan 
to Green River and extended the line from 
Green River to Lander. In 1880, J. L. Slav- 
ens put on a tri-weekly stage, mail and ex- 
press line from Rawlins to Ft. Washakie, 
and soon afterward contracted to extend the 
mail to Meeteetse. This extension from 
Washakie to Meeteetse was sub-contracted 
by Short, McCoy and Cress who ran a tri- 
weekly buck-board carrying mail, passengers 
and express. 

Fremont County was created by an act ap- 
proved March 5th, of the Legislative session 
of 1884, bounded and described as follows: 


That all the portion of the present county of 
Sweetwater, territory of Wyoming, bounded 
and described as follows, shall be created a 
county to be known by the name of Fremont 
with county seat at Lander. Commencing 
at the north-west corner of Sweetwater coun- 
ty running thence south on the western boun- 
dary line of said county, the boundary line 
between townships 26 and 27 north, thence 
east on said township line to a point 107 
degrees and 30 minutes west from Green- 
wich, being the western boundary of Carbon 
County. Thence north along said line of 
107 degrees and 30 minutes of longitude to 
its intersection with the line of 43 degrees 
and 30 minutes of north latitude, being the 
southern boundary of Johnson County. 
Thence west along said line of 43 degrees 
and 30 minutes north latitude to the Big 
Horn river; thence down the Big Horn River 
to the 25th parallel of north latitude to the 
place of beginning. Being the largest coun- 
ty in the territory, having about twelve and 
a half million square acres and is about one 
hundred and ninety miles long by one hun- 
dred twenty-five wide, in the centre of which 
is situated the Shoshone Indian reservation, 
covering the fertile valleys of Wind River 
and its tributaries, which is the garden spot 
of Wyoming. This reservation has an area 
of 1,520,000 acres. 

H. S. Nickerson, H. E. Blinn and B. F. 
Lowe were appointed by Governor Hale on 
the 27th day of March, 1884, as Commission- 
ers to organize this county as provided by 
the act of creating the county. The Com- 
missioners met in Lander on the 28th day of 
March and organized by electing H. G. Nick- 
erson Chairman and appointing J. I. Patten 
Clerk of the Board. The Commissioners is- 
sued a proclamation for a special election to 
be held on the 22nd day of April, 1884, and 
established voting precincts, at which elec- 
tion B. F. Lowe was elected Sheriff, H. G. 
Nickerson Probate Judge, James A. McAvoy 
County Clerk, H. G. Nickerson County 
Treasurer, A. H. Briht County Attorney, 
H. E. Blinn Chairman, P. H. Hall and A. J. 
McDonald County Commissioners, James I. 
Patten Superintendent of Schools, Samuel 
Iiams Coroner, Charles N. Syp Surveyor, 
J. W. O'Neal Assessor. 

These, the first officers elected at the spe- 
cial election, met at Lander, the County seat, 
on the 6th day of May and qualified when 
the county was declared fully organized. 

Total assessed value of property for the 
year 1884 was $1,689,957 with a tax levy of 
16 mills on the dollar, amounting to $28,- 
142.02 total tax, of which $1,255.10 was for 
territorial tax, $769.75 stock indemnity, $3,- 
344.48 common schools; the balance was 
general county funds. There was also col- 
lected this year, $1,112.00 poll tax, which 
was applied to the general school fund. 

At the first general election held November 
4, 1884, J. J. Watkins was elected Sheriff, 
H. G. Nickerson Probate Judge and County 
Treasurer, J. A. McAvoy County Clerk, R. 
H. Hall (Chairman), H. E. Blinn and A. J. 
McDonald, County Commissioners, A. H. 
Bright County Attorney, J. W. O'Neal As- 
sessor, Airs. T. F. Cadwell, County Super- 

intendent of Schools, Samuel Iiames Cor- 
oner, F. S. Wood Surveyor, James Kime 
Representative Territorial Legislature, L. P. 
Vidal, appointed by the Sheriff, Deputy Sher- 
iff at Lander, and J. H. Irey, Deputy Sheriff 
at Meeteetse. 

At the special election, April 22, 1884, there 
was 482 votes cast; at regular election No- 
vember 4, 1884, there were 716 votes cast. 
Total population in 1885 was about 1,200; 
total assessed valuation $1,983,038. The tax 
toll of the year 1885 shows as follows: Total 
levy fifteen mills on the dollar on stock, and 
fourteen and a half on all other property; 
total tax levied for 1885 was $31,080.38, to 
which will make the common school fund 
not far from $5,000. The Territory tax $1,4 
979.26 and stock indemnity $899.53. 

The warrants of this county have always 
been worth their face and have even sold 
for a premium of 10 cents when distressed 
for taxes and sold to the highest bidder. In 
the year 1884 there was collected by the 
treasurer, over two hundred dollars more 
than the entire tax roll of that year called 
for, the tax being collected so close that the 
penalties and interest on the delinquents 
made this excess. This result, probably no 
other county in the territory can show, and 
it is very gratifying to this, the youngest 
county created in the territory. 

When Wyoming was yet a part of Dakota 
territory, Sweetwater County (out of which 
Fremont County was created) was Carter 

The act creating Fremont County pro- 
vides for special terms of court in the coun- 
ty, which is included in the 3rd Judicial Dis- 
trict when the county commissioners shall 
deem it necessary and shall notify the judge 
of the district to hold a term of court in the 
county at such time as he can and not con- 
flict with his stated terms in other counties 
in his district. 

The first term of court was held at Lander 
on the 8th day of June, 1884, Judge Samuel 
C. Parks presiding. The county was repre- 
sented by Prosecuting Attorney A. H. 
Bright. There was present. District Clerk 
Jesse Knight, also Deputy District Clerk E. 
F. Cheney. There being but little business 
for the court, and none of importance, the 
term lasted but ten days. There was also 
present J. I. Atkins, Sheriff, and L. P. Vidal, 
Deputy Sheriff. 

South Pass City, exclusively a mining 
town, was the first town in the county. It 
was the county seat of Sweetwater county 
from 1869 to 1874. When the county seat 
was moved to Green River. In 1867, gold 
having been discovered in what was known 
as the Sweetwater mines, a rush was made 
for South Pass where a rich mine (the Clar- 
issa) was discovered which fed a rich placer, 
the Clarissa Gulch. The hostile Indians 
drove the first prospectors out, who returned 
in a month with reinforcements and made 
permanent camp and settlement. In early 
spring of 1868, the news of wonderfuly rich 
finds of gold being circulated, a rush was 
made from all quarters for the new Eldorado 
and some 5,000 persons came into the mines. 
South Pass rapidly grew to prominence. 


jMain Street was built up on each side for 
halt a mile, stores, hotels, saloons and other 
pusiness houses were built and flourished 
or some years. The name, South Pass City, 
was given the place in consequence of its 
f>eing near the great South Pass of the 
£ocky Mountains, through which the old 

alifornia emigrant road passes at Pacific 
Springs, known to all the Overland travelers 
o California and Oregon as being on the 
Divide of the Rocky Mountains. South Pass 
pad a flourishing district school and has con- 
inued to have up to the present time. It 
lad no established church society, but fre- 
quently had services held by itinerant preach- 
:rs of various denominations. The population 
vas variously estimated from 1,200 to 2,000 
n 1868-69, since which the number has de- 
ceased to less than 50 persons at the present 
ime. The first sheriff was John R. Murphy, 
low living in Lander at an advanced age. 
3e was appointed by the authorities of Da- 
:ota Territory. Officers appointed by Gov- 
rnor Campbell upon the organization of 
Sweetwater County were John Body, Sheriff, 
ohn Anthony, John Swingle and Nathaniel 
Daniels, County Commissioners, H. G. Nick- 
rson, Superintendent of Schools, H. B. Hub- 
>ell 4 Coroner, C. L. Lightburn, Assessor. 
ohn^McGlinchey was next sheriff followed 
>y P. A. McPhee. James A. Brennen was 
text Probate Judge, Tim McCarthy, County 

lerk, A. Mcintosh next. J. W. Kingman 
vas first Judge of District Court, followed by 
AT. T. Jones and H. M. Carey. But few of 
he early settlers of South Pass remain, 
imong them being J. H. Johnson, James 
Smith, John Bilcox, Jason Sherman, L. B. 
(Tripp and Antone Stubs. 

The first Justice in South Pass was James 
W. Stillman followed by Mrs. Esther Morris, 
kdio was appointed by Governor Campbell 
md who was the first and only woman Jus- 
ice of Peace in the United States. She was 
[ucceeded by C. C. Fox, and the present Jus- 
ice is S. B. O'Meara. 

Owing to the depreciation in value of the 
nining property and interest, all business 
an down and was suspended, but South Pass 
Ell yet be prosperous in mining. "The South 
?ass News," a five column paper, was started 
(i 1869, edited by C. J. Cole, Captain N. L. 
Turner and E. A. Slack successively. 

Atlantic City, four miles east of South 
pass, sprang into xistence in 1868, during the 
nining excitement, and during the height of 
p prosperity, its population was variously 

stimated from 1,500 to 2,000. Among the 
jirst settlers was John Anthony, Pease & 
Taylor, Foster Brothers, Jules Lamoureux, 

rank E. Caffey, Dr. James Irwin, Ed Lawn, 

ouis Poire. Among other early settlers still 
emaining in Atlantic, is Robert McAuley, 

d Lawn, John Huff, Frank Lenna, Charles 
[Washington, H. B. Macomber, William Gra- 
|rix, R. Ricketts. 

Atlantic, like South Pass, never had any 
;>rganized church society, but had frequent 
ervices by local or itinerant preachers. It 
las always maintained a district school and 
vhile its population is now less than one 
jiundred, yet it keeps up its school. 


Its first Justice of the Peace was Dr. 
James Irwin, appointed by Governor Camp- 
bell in 1869, followed by Ed Lawn, Charles 
Washington and Robert McAuley, present 
Justice. The first and present Notary Pub- 
lic is J. S. Frankeburger. 

Atlantic City, like South Pass, sprang up 
during the mining excitement, and then all 
business followed the depression in mining 
until the lowest ebb was reached, but at this 
time permanent improvements and develop- 
ments are being made, which will place At- 
lantic in a prominent place in the mining 
world. Emil Granier has just completed a 
ditch here some 15 miles long with 15 or 20 
substantial flumes at a cost of about $100,000, 
with which to work the placers here and vi- 
cinity, and will commence work in the spring 
when rich returns are confidently expected. 

Miners Delight, four miles east of Atlantic, 
grew suddenly into prominence as did South 
Pass and Atlantic during the mining excite- 
ment of 1868, and is a mining town named 
after the famous "Miners Delight Lode," 
here situated. Among the first settlers were 
Jonathan Pugh, Jack Holbrook, Major Gal- 
lagher, H. G. Nickerson, George McKay, 
James Kime, and it had in 1869, a population 
upwards of 1,0000, but is now reduced to less 
than 50. Among the old timers remaining 
are James Kime, George McKay, Jonathan 
Pugh, B. C. Sexton. Miners Delight had no 
church society but had district school for 
many years but has none now. 

The first Justice of the Peace was Frank 
McGovern, followed by John Curry, H. G. 
Nickerson and George McKay. 

Miners Delight, like South Pass and At- 
lantic will yet take its place in the front rank 
of mining towns in the West. 

Red Canyon, a mile from Miners Delight, 
was first settled by William Tweed and W. 
A. Barrett in 1870, who settled on Barrett 
Creek, a tributary, followed by Joseph Wag- 
ner and John Norton, all of whom engaged 
and are still engaged in farming and stock 
raising with good success. 

In 1869 Little Popoagie was first settled 
by J. R. Murphy and J. G. Faris, the former 
locating on what is known as Eagle ranch. 
They both had several encounters with the 
Indians and many narrow escapes. Later 
settlers followed, among whom were Ed 
Young, Frank Casto, William Juftile, John 
Werlen, Mrs. Clark, William Trosper and 
A. P. Battrum. They engaged in farming 
and stock raising with good success. Here 
a district school is taught. 

Willow Creek was settled in May, 1873, 
by James A. McAvoy, John M. Ried and 
Joseph Himmelsbach. The last two are still 
engaged in farming and cattle raising with 
good success. 

Lyons, or lower Little Popoagie, was set- 
tled in 1880 by Robert Hall, John Gillis, M. 
Gregg, Roberts and others, all of whom are 
engaged in agriculture and stock raising with 
good results. There is a flourishing district 
school in Lyons' district. 

Sweetwater was first settled in 1874 by 
Signor Brothers at what is now Rongis, 
named by reversing the name of Signor. 
Herman Bohack and Henry Bruning were 


the first to settle at St. Marys, on Sweet- 
water, in 1878, but abandoned their location 
three years later. Now the river is located 
from St. Marys down through the county. 
Among the locators are John Arbold, Signor 
and Brown, Westfall, Falher & Sons, C. H. 
Bush, and Ed Bennett. The last two are at 
Sweetwater bridge on the stage road from 
Lander to Rawlins. Further down are D. 
N. Carrington, Clay & Forrest, August Lan- 
acken, James Via and others, all successfully 
engaged in stock raising, principally. 

Wind River valley, now Fort Washakie 
and the Shoshone Agency, was first located 
in 1868 by Tilford Kutch, U. P. Davidson, 
Jack Parker, William Evans, H. G. and S. 
C. Nickerson, Henry and William Lusk, Wil- 
liam Rogers and many others. Rogers, Evans, 
William Jones, Charles Yarnell, Steve Geni 
and Charles Oldham still remain, although 
the lands are declared set apart for a reser- 
vation for the Shoshone Indians and such 
other friendly tribes as they may tolerate or 
admit among them. The lands of this reser- 
vation are the best in the territory, the soil 
and climate the finest. 

North Fork, four miles from Lander, was 
first located by C. B. Harrison, E. P. Cot- 
trell, Ed Atlon, Henry Mealman, P. P. Dick- 
enson. In 1874 quite a village sprang up 
here on the line of the reservation. Here a 
district school is taught. The principal in- 
dustry is farming. E. P. Cottrell was first 
Justice of the Peace, succeeded by H. H. 
Hale, the present Justice. The population of 
North Fork precinct is about 75. 

Meeteetse, situated in the northern part of 
the county, is a stock raising community. 
The village consists of one store, post office 
and saloon. It has a school of twenty schol- 
ars, a population of some 75 persons, en- 
gaged in stock raising with the best of sue 
cess. The town was started in 1879. The 
first settlers were Otto France, Judge Carteri 
Cattle Company, followed by Captain Henry 
Belknap, Dickerson & McDonald, A. B. 
Wilson and others. The first and present 
Justice is Otto France. The first and pres 
ent Notary Public is E. T. David. 

Embar on Owl Creek, named from the 
Captain Torry band, is a village of some 50 
inhabitants, settled by Smith and Baradee, 
George M. Sliney, J. D. McCullouch, Cap- 
tain A. R. Torry, Price Brothers and others 
in 1880. Stock raising is the principal pur- 
suit which like other portions of the county 
is successfully followed. The first and pres- 
ent Justice of the Peace is George M. Sliney. 

Lander, the county seat of Fremont Coun- 
ty, was first settled by Messrs. Austin, Burch, 
Likely, Saylor and Shafer in 1869. Shafer 
died on his ranch in 1870 and the others have 
since left the territory. Many other settlers 
soon after made permanent locations, among 
whom were Mrs. Richardson and Mrs. Hall, 
both being killed by Indians soon after. 
Frank Ecoffey, J. J. Frey, Hornicker Broth- 
ers, Peter Anderson, John McCullom, James 
Forrest, Henry Lovewell, John Pelon, Ed 
St. John and many others made permanent 
settlement and engaged, and most of them 
are still engaged, in farming and stock rais- 

Lander is situated on the Big Popoagie 
and diverging streams, three streams run- 
ning through the town. The town was called 
Push Root by the first settlers, but finally 
named in honor of the soldier and explorer, 
General Lander, who built the road through 
this county from Burnt ranch on Sweetwater 
to the upper crossing of Green River and so 
on to Bear Lake in Utah. 

The first Justice of the Peace was T. W. 
Luim, succeeded by J. I. Patten, George 
Stringfield, W. A. Frederick, W. F. Chalmers 
and Dr. James Irwin, the present Justice. 
The first Notary Public was George T. 
Stringfield, succeeded by J. I. Patten, the 
present Notary. Peter Anderson, John Grant, 
W. H. Jackson, Peter Peratto and C. C. 
Crowley were constables successively. The 
vote November 4, 1884, was 290; population 
about 400; total valuation in the district was 
in 1885, $108,341, on which a special tax of 
$3,000 was raised, with $1,000 appropriated 
from the teacher's fund, a substantial stone 
school house was built. There is now en- 
rolled in the district 100 scholars. A flour- 
ishing school has been taught in Lander since 

By the energy and perseverance of Father 
Moriarity, a substantial Catholic church was 
built of stone in 1881 and a society organ- 
ized. In 1885 a substantial wood building 
was built by the Methodist and Episcopal 
societies, presided over by Reverend C. C. 
Zebold (Methodist), Reverend Roberts and 
Coolidge (Episcopal), the latter a young 
Arapahoe Indian educated in the east after 
his father and other Indians were killed at 
Lander in the raid by the whites on the 
Arapahoes in 1870. 

' The first newspaper, the "Wind River 
Mountaineer," was started January 1, 1883, 
by I. C. Wynn, Editor and Proprietor. It 
was enlarged July 2, 1883, to a six column 
paper and sold to a stock company and it is' 
still edited by Wynn, to be enlarged to a 
seven column weekly, in July, 1886, all print- 
ed in Lander. 

Since the division of this county from 
Sweetwater and making the county seat at 
Lander, business of all kinds has rapidly 
sprung up, proved successful and increasing. 

There was organized in 1873, a militia com- 
pany, armed by the territory, W. F. O'Neil 
Captain and called the "Push Root Rangers." 
Their numbers gradually grew less, until they 
finally disbanded. 

Stinking Water, a stream in the northern 
part of the county, takes its name from 
strong mineral springs that come out in thev 
river and on its banks just below the can- 
yon where the stream cuts through Cedar 
Mountains. This place was formerly called 
Colter's Hell. The fumes from the springs 
are so strong as to overcome persons who' 
inhale them. In 1883, a man went to bathe ' 
there and was found dead, having been over-'., 
powered by the fumes. The strong fumes 
can be smelled for miles away and the water 
in the river tastes of it for miles below the* 1 
springs, while above, it is pure and sweet, j 

Fort Brown, named after Captain Brown, 
who was killed in the Phil Kearney massacre 
in 1866, was established where Lander now 


stands in 1869 by General Brisbin, U. S. A. 
This post was moved on to the Shoshone 
reservation on Little Wind River in 1873 and 
named Fort Washakie after Chief Washakie 
of the Shoshone Indians, and is garrisoned 
by one, two or three companies. 

In the summer of 1870 Fort Stambaugh 
was established by Major David Gordon of 
the 2nd Cavalry and named after his Lieu- 
tenant, who was killed on the 10th day of 
May in an engagement with Indians on Stam- 
baugh Creek, tributary of Twin Creek. This 
post was situated between Atlantic and Min- 
srs Delight, midway, and was abandoned in 
the fall of 1877. 



'Ye Rockies hail! majestic mounts! 

Of future bliss the favored shrine! 
For you God's Heart of gifts Divine 

Opens this day its precious founts." 

, — Diary of Father DeSmet. 

The Wind River range of the Rocky Moun- 
:ains presents a scene so vast, so varied, so 
-ugged, so inspiring and unusual that the 
noM" experienced travelers and explorers ex- 
:laim "How Wonderful!" and are unable to 
Snd words to express a comparison with the 
Dther ranges of mountains in the world. 
Viewed from a distance they invite; from 
:heir summits, the distant ranges of moun- 
:ains aided by the clear atmosphere and their 
iltitude, afford the widest range of clear 
vision in the world. 

It was this view that made Captain Bonne- 
ville exclaim, when he had climbed Chau- 
/enet, "It is the most beautiful spot in the 

Chauvenet is a spur extending several miles 
lorth and east of the main range. To the 
lorth Captain Bonneville was looking over 
:he tops of the Owl Creek Range and follow- 
ng the courses of the Big Horn and Clark's 
Fork Rivers to their junction with the Yel- 
owstone in southern Montana, nearly two 
lundred miles away, Prior Gap, Clouds Peake 
ind all of the tributaries of the Big Horn 
system stand out in bold relief. The south- 
erly extensions of the Black Hills are seen 
is they approach Laramie Peak and extend- 
ng on to Sherman Hill, the highest point 
m the Union Pacific Railroad, then Elk 
Mountain and the ranges of the Medicine 
Bow Forest reserve in southern Wyoming 
ind northern Colorado appear, many of these 
joints being fully two hundred miles away 
ind comprising the drainage area of the 
Morth Platte and Sweetwater Rivers. "Split 
Rock" is in full view and marks the course 
if the Old Oregon Trail from Independence 
Rock past Green and Crooks Mountains as 
t passes up the Sweetwater Valley to the 
Did South Pass, while between Mount Nys- 
:rum, Wind River and Temple Peakes he 
:aught a glimpse of the Ogden Gateway and 
he ranges surrounding Great Salt Lake. 

Washington Irving says "Captain Bonne- 
ville had the soul to appreciate the scene," 
le made full notes and Avrote graphically but 

he realized the inadequacy of words to por- 
tray the profound impression made upon his 
mind and turned over his notes to Washing- 
ton Irving. Great Litterateur that he was, 
and while he immortalized Captain Bonne- 
ville, he made but slight changes from the en- 
tries made by Bonneville in his diary. Bon- 
neville became so absorbed in his work he 
"was absent without leave" for three years 
and was dropped from the rolls, but he had 
taken observations, made maps and had writ- 
ten such a report, that when he submitted 
them to President Jackson with an explana- 
tion he was restored to his command and 

, The work of Captain Bonneville and the 
expedition of Lewis and Clark, under the 
guidance of Sackajawea, enabled the United 
States to claim Washington, Oregon and 
parts of Idaho and Montana by "Right of 
Discovery" and the claim was made to stick, 
after serious discussions with Great Britain. 

Colonel John C. Fremont was then sent 
out with a larger command well equipped 
with the best scientific instruments of the 
time he went through South Pass, selected 
what he thought was the highest peak in the 
range as he passed up Green River, climbed 
it and gave it his name, his description of the 
climb, the efforts made and the wonderful 
view from the summit, ranks with that of 
Bonneville and they are not excelled by any- 
thing of the kind written in the English lan- 

Bierstadt, the great American painter, read 
these reports was inspired and sitting under 
Wind River Peak he painted the greatest 
mountain landscape in the world, "The Rocky 
Mountains," which hangs in the Metropoli- 
tan Art Museum in New York and has been 
spoken of by the best critics as "The best 
thing in lights and shadows in the museum" 
and is a faithful portrayal of the mountain 
range from Wind River Peak to Chauvenet. 
Artists have crossed the ocean to study this 
wonderful work. 

The things we have been describing have 
become classics, have been known for nearly 
a century and still they are comparatively 
unknown to our American people, because, 
until recently transportation has been lack- 
ing. The best view of this range which is 
obtainable from any point which can be 
reached by automobile is seen from the top 
of Beaver Hill on the Rocky Mountain High- 

Where the road crosses the Sweetwater 
Divide at an altitude of about seven thou- 
sand feet, beginning at an easterly point the 
main features within our observation are, to 
the southeast, Ferris Crook and Green 
Mountains are in full view, the Sweetwater 
River coming through South Pass, Atlantic 
Peak and Mt. Nystrom on either side of the 
headwaters of the Big Popo-Agie. The next 
is Mt. Arter, which rises only a little above 
timber line and is immediately back of Lan- 
der. From the top of this peak, which is 
easily reached, one may get a full view of the 
scene incorporated in Bierstadt's painting, 
this peak obstructs the view of Wind River 
Peak. Mt. Hooker is near. It is well named, 


sloping from the southwest it looks as if it 
were actually hollowed out on the northeast- 
erly side; and just to the east is Chauvenet, 
the peak which Captain Bonneville climbed. 
In the distance, and a little to the right, may 
be seen the group of peaks which surround 
the glaciers. 

Crow Heart Butte is seen down in the 
middle of the Wind River Valley, then across 
the basin of the Wind River one gets a 
glimpse of the Absarakees and the intersec- 
tion is marked by Washakee Needle, a very 
prominent land mark. 

Following along the Owl Creek Range are 
several points known as Embar, Sheep Creek 
and Mexican Passes. Then the Big Wind 
River Canyon, Bird's Eye and Sioux Passes, 
which is a little half round gap at the east- 
erly end of the Owl Creeks. 

The next best view of this range obtain- 
able from a highway, is just above Shoshoni 
where the Grand Highway leaves the Yellow- 
stone, the first going on to Lander, and the 
latter diverging to Wind River Canyon. 
Again enumerating the points easily distin- 
guishable, they are, Atlantic Peak, Mt. Arter, 
Wind River Peak, often called Surveyors 
"V." This "V" is really canyon between 
Wind River and Temple Peaks, then Chau- 
venet, Little Wind River Canyon and Hooli- 
gan, then the great bald mountain extending 
to Bull Lake Canyon. 

The group of snow caps to the right in- 
clude Fordyce Peaks, Mt. Kirkland, Chim- 
ney Mountain and Gannet Peaks. The high- 
est snow cap is on the top of Gannet Peak 
and two well marked ice fields, the one to the 
left and the one to the right of Gannet are 
live glaciers, and immediately back of these 
peaks is the Fourt Glacier. To the right of 
Gannet are Mt. Harding, Mt. Wilson, Downs 
Mountain and an unnamed point which is 
easily accessible and from which one may see 
five thousand feet of the tops of the Grand 
Tetons, and to the east a distinct view of 
Laramie Peak, which is two hundred thirty 
miles away. 

To the right the pinnacles, including Rams- 
horn, are seen and between these points the 
Wind River extends to Two Gwo Tee Pass. 
Again turning to the right are seen Castle 
Rocks, Washakie Needle, the Passes in the 
Owl Creek Range, Wind River Canyon and 
Bird's Eye Passes. 

Gannet Peak has an altitude of 13,785 feet. 
The view from the top of the glacial area and 
Gannet Peak is simply sublime. To the 
west one sees the whole Teton Range, "The 
Grand First View" of the most celebrated 
mountain scene on the American continent. 
From this point one can realize the truth 
of all of the graphic descriptions written 
about the Tetons. One obtains at a glance, 
all of the interesting features of the southerly 
end of Yellowstone National Park. The 
Teton and Wind River ranges are the most 
sharply broken and present the most rugged 
view of any mountains in the world, they 
are of gray granite, which has come up 
through red granites and phorphy, and it 
breaks more sharply than any of the older 

In Two Gwo Tee Pass we see Lava Moun- 
tain, reddish in its appearance and which 
marks a distinct change in the geological for- 
mations, and now turning to the right, the 
geological measures lie horizontally and this 
horizantal striation is distinctly marked in 
the pinnacles to the west of Two Gwo Tee 
Pass and surrounding Brook's Lake, where 
they rise to an altitude of about 2,000 feet 
above the surface of the lake. This view pre- 
sents a wearing away of the rocks not un- 
like the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. 

All of the scenes we have described in the 
foregoing are seen to about the point where 
the Union Pacific Railroad crosses the Lara- 
mie Plains. 

There is a wonderful view of the water 
shed comprising the sources of the Columbia 
as they converge into the Snake River and 
flow to Puget Sound. Fremont's Peak pre- 
sents, from this point, all of the graphic de- 
scription written by its name sake, and is 
only ten or twelve miles away with the larg- 
est glacial area in the United States lying; 
between. Dinwoody Canyon is not less than 
4,000 feet deep. This glacial area is the 
source of supply of many streams, the prin- 
cipal one being Dinwoody and Bull Lake 
Creeks, and discharges not less than 500,000 
acre feet of water annually, and the drier and 
hotter the season, the larger the flow. The 
waters leaving the terminal moranes of the 
glaciers are filled with rock flower, so that 
their appearance is not unlike the discharge 
from the battery of a stamp mill. The lakes 
below afford settling basins and from there 
the waters proceed with the clear bluish tint 
that we observe as they discharge into the 
Big Wind River. This point marked the in- 
definite point where the boundary lines on 
the Great Northwest, Mexico and the Loui- 
siana Purchase converged, but was never 
definitely located. Fremont County has morei 
than a hundred miles of well marked trails' 
and many more of branching game trails, 
through the mountains and evergreen, for- 
ests primeval. More than five hundred miles 1 
of bright dashing mountain streams andi 
scores of lakes, stocked with fish that are 
easily accessible and hundreds of cascades,; 
rapids and water falls. One may walk ori 
ride for weeks amid these scenes and it only 1 
creates a desire to travel farther and seej 

The botanist follows the snow line andj 
fields of mountain flowers until autumnj 
leaves warns him to turn back. 

The student of geology begins with the| 
lowest (altitudinally the highest) formation' 
and follows the fault planes and geological* 
measures back to those surfaces which are 
familiar to all. The granits, schists, silurian! 
and other lines, oil sands, phosphates, redf 
beds and shales are all exposed and may be' 
measure and studied. Intrusions of diorite 
and quartz veins invite the mining engineer'! 
at the same time. I 

The largest live glaciers in the United!) 
States surround Gannet, Mount Helen andu 
Chimney Mountain. These glaciers araH 
among the snow caps which are seen fromH 
points near Bonneville and Shoshoni, on thell 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy and Chicagcin 


ind Northwestern Railroads. They are the 
: arthest to the right as you look toward the 
nountains and the highest snow cap is on 
:he top of Gannet peak, Mount Helen may 
)e seen distinctly looking west from a point 
lear Arapahoe. It stands out like the top 
}f a chimney with a notch in the middle of 
t against a setting sun and is right in the 
niddle of the glacial area. 

There is a wall of ice five hundred feet 
n height, clear and streaked with blue and 
jreen metalic tints. A large block of granite 
perhaps twenty by fifteen feet had started 
;o cross the biggest glacier. It was frozen 
n and when we saw it, was balanced upon 
in ice pedestal about three feet high and 
vith an area on top of only a third of that 
)f the boulder. The water was running in 
orrents. Many crevices are impassable and 
hin ice at many places might precipitate one 
nto a very cold bath. 

Going up the easterly side of Dry Creek 
me finds timber line approaching nearer to 
he glaciers than at any other point. One 
:an ride up "Horse Ridge" between Dinwid- 
Ue and Dry Creeks, to a point about two 
niles from the top, but from there it is a 
lard climb to the top of Chimney Mountain. 
?rom there, with five or six hundred feet 
>L- tope one could get down on the ice at the 
rery apex between the Dinwiddie and Bull 
^,ake glaciers and a camp here with canned 
leat to cook with, would enable one to reach 
iny of the peaks which pierce the ice fields 
ind I think nothing more daring can be 
ound among the Alps. 

Cheyenne, March 29th, '68. 
Dear Nephew: 

Your letter came to hand today and in re- 
»ly would say I was very happy to hear from 
rou and to know that you and the ballenc of 
ny friends are all well and doing well. You 
ay it has been a long time since you seen 
ne which is very true however you all have 
ieen remembered by me with affection and 
:indness. I often think of all my relatives 
tnd wish to see them but if you know any- 
hing of my character you know that my 
omposition is not entirely destitute of pride, 
rherefore you will not think strange that I 
vould prefer being away from all friends 
intil such times that I could meet them on an 
:quality. And thank high heaven my wild 
>ats are all sowed and for the past 4 years 

have been reaping the harvest. Last year 
' cleared has always been my in- 
ention to get in shape to follow my back 
rack through life and make straight all the 
:rooked steps which I made when young. 
Vt last the country west is being opened 
riore and more every day which makes a good 
>pening for business. The mining prospects 
^re as good at Sweet water as ever they 
Vere in California, there is no doubt as to 
heir richness we are about 275 miles from 
^weet Water. Many ARE already starting 
j)Ut it is to soon by 30 days. You Say that 
nothers health is good nothing could do me 
p much good as that news and above all 
hings in my heart would like to see her not 
|hat I do not love the ballenc of my friends 
mt Mothers first. You say Sidney is fore- 

man of a shop in Geneva I wish you write 
and let me know if he has no farm and if he 
is poor so that he has to work for other 
people. Also tell me how all the rest of the 
family are doing and how they are getting 
along tell me how Mary and Edwin are get- 
ting along as we know where Martin Warner 
is and what he is doing. Tell all the family 
to write to me. As for your coming out 
here I would advise you if you are doing 
well to stay there with your parents and you 
will be better off in a long run write often 
and long and tell me about Erastus Root and 
all the old neighbors in Mentor Lake County 
Ohio but for how long cant tell I presume 
the country and my old friends have changed 
so much that I would scarcely realize it. It 
is my intention now if I can fix my business 
in shape to allow me to come home next fall 
and spend the most part of the winter and 
then go to New York in the spring. I would 
like very much to see Mother and the bal- 
lenc of our family, Aunt Betsey and in fact 
all my old friends and will if I live till I 
can fix my business so it will not suffer 
without my attention. I have sold 100,000 
dollars worth goods during the past seven 
months and the profits were very good if I 
have no bad luck this season can make all 
the money I will ever want and my opinion 
is that luck depends on management and 
having had some experience think I will make 
it you write that you are about brother Riley 
size and if report be true you are a very good 
looking man at least thought so by the girls. 
You say you were at Aunt Betsey's I wish 
I could have been there with you and will 
be after a while. I wish Aunt Betsey would 
write to me. Delos has been with me sev- 
eral times this winter Delos is doing very 
well. And a very good boy and I think very 
much of him he is very much like Uncle 
Roswell in his appearance. You ask about 
this country I will tell you all I know about 
it and I have been here about 11 years and 
think I have a good knowledge Cheyenne is 
situated at the east base of the Black Hills, 
107 miles north from Denver City and 85 
miles south of Fort Laramie and 40 miles 
east from Fort Saunders and 2^4 miles from 
Fort D. A. Russell one of the largest forts 
in the west. The town is located on a beau- 
tiful Prairie and no timber nearer than 20 
miles. It is 517 miles east of Salt Lake 
everything going west is compelled to come 
through this place there has been a world 
of money paid out in this country. But dont 
think it will ever be a good farming country 
but the best in the world for stock of all 
kinds. The first day of August 1867 I com- 
menced building the first house in Cheyenne 
City which now contains about 8000 peo- 
ple and the cars of yesterday brought 518 
more there is a great field for young men 
who will work and then you can tell your 
father and mother that I know of no law 
that can hinder them from writing to me. 
One reason for not writing long ere this was 
I wanted to accomplish a certain object be- 
fore I either wrote or come home and that 
object is nearly accomplished and I am com- 
ing then, Yours as ever, 



You may look for Delos and me to drop 
in about next winter if I can get him to 
come with me and think I can. 

I remain your Uncle and friend, 

Cheyenne, April 15th, '68. 
Dear Nephew: — 

Yours of April 6th came to hand to day 
containing a Statement which I wish to cor- 
rect you say I wrote I was worth two hun- 
dred thousand dollars which I think if you 
will look you will find that I said I had made 
twenty thousand last year I am not aware 
of saying that I was worth anything more 
than that you must remember that 200,000 
is a very large pile of money. I have not 
heard from Delos since my last letter to you 
but presume he is well or I would heard 
from him. Got a letter from Aunt Betsey 
a few days ago. and answered it immediately. 
You ask me about this country it is the 
worst country on earth at present and will 
be for some time. All the worst men on 
earth have come here all kinds of crimes 
you can imagine are committed here and most 
of them unpunished by law. A man to live 
in this place must be made of cast iron, but 
a man who has been through the mill smut 
machine and all has no desire to mix in with 
that class of people and if he attends strictly 
to business can get along all right. There 
will be a large quantity of money paid out 
in this country this season and I intend to 
get some of it if possible and I will. I shall 
divide my stock of goods this summer and 
take apart of them west with the intention of 
closing out the entire thing this fall and 
come home. I wish to be remembered to all 
my friends, 

I remain yours affectionately, 


You speak of having bought a lot of land, 
it is a very good thing to have something in 
view so that a man will be contented and 
try to save his money. That is the whole 
secret in making a fortune if you only save 
one hundred a year and compound that for 
10 years you are well off it is no matter 
whether your land is worth any more or not 
at the time it is paid for your money is safe 
and all together and if you should want to 
go into business you can always raise money 
out of that kind of property. For instance 
if I had saved all the money I have ever 
handled I would have had enough for the 
whole Beckwith family I have made and lost 
a mint of money but am going very slow 
from this on. I landed in Cheyenne the 27th 
day of July last and on the 2nd day of Aug- 
ust had a house built and had a stock of 
goods in it and was selling which was the 
first house in Cheyenne. I bought one lot 
and sold so as to make seventeen hundred 
dollars since that time the same lot has Dem, 
sold at an advance of 3000. Many a man 
made money faster here last season than the 
best times in California while others came 
here with cash and are broke, now, but those 
fellows had not been through the mill. I 
think lots will be very high this season. I 
have 13 lots besides the one the store stands 
on and if any Eastern gent thinks more of 

them than I do he will be very likely to get 
them. This will be one of the best stock 
countries in the world in a few years as soon 
as the Indians are killed or driven out which 
will be by degrees as the country settles, the 
Indians are making considerable trouble this 
spring such as killing a man or two every 
now and then but nothing thought of it, 
fires are set often for the purpose of plunder 
a man killed nearly every night. But this is 
all in the contract and nothing said about it. 
I presume you have all heard of the great 
Phil Kearney massacre by the Indians I 
was at Phil Kearny at the time there was 
81 men went out from the fort and all killed 
and scalped for I helped to bring them my- 
self and know it is so. And many a man will 
loose his life this season. Soldiers are no 
earthly use among Indians. Salt Lake trains 
are commencing to come in for their Mor- 
man Brethrens and goods. I think as this 
Railroad will run about 80 miles North from 
Salt Lake City and it being a good farming 
country and on a direct (line) between Salt 
Lake and Montana this will be the best and 
the largest City west of the Missouri River 
and the best point for business and one that 
will last. You did not say how many children 
there was in your mother's family. Tell me 
what good wool socks are worth by the large 
quantity and dried fruits of all kinds that 
grow in your country. If this letter is not 
long enough say so and I will write the next 
one on a clothes line. My regards to your 
father and mother. Yours as ever, 




February, 1923 


I will begin my series of articles by givingi 
the historical origin of Wyoming. It was 
admitted as a Territory in 1868 and as a. 
State in 1890. It contains about ninety-seven, 
thousand square miles and has wonderful] 
mineral resources consisting of iron, copper,, 
soda, oil and immense coal deposits. Agri-i 
cultural development is dependent mainly up-i 
on irrigation, although there are large areas, 
now farmed by other methods. This is a; 
wonderful stock country. The grasses are 
very nutritious and stock of all kinds de- ( 
velop wonderfully well in this state. The ( 
early settlers depended altogether on the 
range for their large herds the year around, 
cutting native hay for their riding, driving 
and draft horses during the winter months. 
This hay is very nutritious and no grain is, 

The climatic condition varies according to 
location. In some parts of the state there is, 
very little snow fall, in others it is very, 
heavy. In some parts it is very windy com- 
pared with other sections. This being the 
case, the snow is blown off the hills and high- 
ground leaving the grass so the stock can ' 
have good grazing. In other parts of the 
country they depend largely on the chinook,! 
winds which are always warm, to remove the , 
snow. I have known the chinook winds tc 
remove six or eight inches of snow off of 
a large area of country in a few hours, leav- ' 


ng the ground covered with water in many 
ilaces. This explains why stock can winter 
in this nutritious grass that cured during 
he summer and fall. The altitude on these 
[razing areas varies from thirty-five hundred 
o seven thousand feet and higher than this 
a the mountains. It gets very cold here at 
imes, the thermometer registering forty de- 
crees below zero in some sections of the 
ountry, but the atmosphere is very dry and 
he cold is not so noticeable as in lower and 
amper states. As a rule there is very little 
yind when it is real cold. We don't antici- 
ate very much cold weather before Christ- 
nas. The fall of the year is usually very 

Wyoming has the distinction of being the 
irst to adopt Woman Suffrage, 
n Missouri I once did roam, 
tut here in Wyoming is now my home. 

wanted to come West, a new country to 
Vhen I landed in Wyoming it looked good 
to me. 

pitched my tent and set the stakes well, 
Vhat the future would be I couldn't then 

it times I was discouraged and blue 
tut soon I realized that wouldn't do. 

-waf fully determined to work to win, 
^o fail would be a sin. 
t is a pleasure, it is some fun 
Vhen you realize you have won. 

About the middle of May the various cow 
utfits start out with their cowboys for the 
eneral spring round up. Each ontfit con- 
ists of a foreman, a round up cook, a wagon 
aaded with supplies and drawn by four 
orses that the cook is supposed to drive 
/hile moving from place to place. There 
> an additional wagon called the bed wagon, 
^his is to haul the beds of the cowboys 
mich consist of a few blankets and sougans 
nclosed in a tarpaulin. They spread their 
ed on the ground when they were ready 
d retire and rolled it up with two straps 
uckled around it when ready to move. They 
ad no tents and their beds were wet at 
mes for several days and sometimes weeks 
t a time. 

There was also a day and night horse 
wrangler and twenty or thirty cowboys. Each 
owboy was supposed to have nine or more 
ead of horses. There were more or less 
eps with each wagon from other outfits to 
ather and take back cattle to their own 
mge that had strayed away during the win- 
;r. This was called the general spring round 
p when they branded the calves and endea- 
ored to get the various brands of cattle on 
heir own range. Later they would have 
heir beef round up and more calf branding. 

Each cowboy was supposed to stand night 
uard from two to three hours, depending 
n circumstances. About three o'clock in the 
lorning the cook would be up getting the 
reakfast ready and a little later would call 
Roll out" or "Come and get it." By the 
me they got through eating breakfast, which 
rould be about daylight, the night wrangler 
rou\d be in with the horses. The horses 
re put into a corral consisting of a rope 

fastened to posts driven in the ground and 
stayed with guy ropes. After each cowboy 
has roped, bridled and saddled his horse they 
start out on the long circle to make the drive, 
and probably ready for a ten o'clock meal. 
After changing horses the herd is worked, 
calves branded and the cattle they wish to 
hold are put into the day herd and probably 
another move is made. The cook some- 
times moves several miles after breakfast and 
has dinner ready on time. 

It is rather interesting to watch the pitch- 
ing horses at times when they are saddled 
of a cool morning. The cowboys are, as a 
rule, a jolly, good natured lot of fellows and 
will give up their last dollar to help a friend. 

From some localities cattle had to be 
trailed several hundred miles to a shipping 
point but when properly handled would gain 
in weight while being trailed to the railroad. 

The Cook's Call 
Roll out! Come and get your feed. 
The horses are in so saddle your steed. 
Go on the circle and get out of my way. 
I have to move, yes ten miles they say. 
Say boys, watch Johnny mount Old Blue, 
He is a hard one, a regular hoodoo. 
Watch him pitch and hear him bawl. 
Alas! Poor Johnny got a fall. 
Whoop! Hurrah! Try him again, I think 

you will stay. 
Don't spoil the horse by letting him have his 

Laugh, says Johnny, you pin heads, laugh, 
You fellows couldn't ride a bucking calf. 
I will show you boys what I can do 
By riding to a finish the outlawed Blue. 

Horses were handled similar to cattle but 
didn't scatter over as large an area and were 
usually brought to the ranch where suitable 
corrals were provided for separating and 
holding them while branding the colts and 
sorting out horses belonging to other parties. 
For this work it required saddle horses with 
speed and endurance and riders that knew 
how to save their horses and at the same 
time get results. 

Handling sheep is quite different from cat- 
tle or horses. It is a trade of itself. They 
are handled in bands of twenty-five hundred 
to three thousand head. One herder for each 
band and one camp tender for two herds. 
Each herder had a wagon fitted out with a 
stove, cooking utensils, supplies, a bed, slid- 
ing table, cupboard, sliding drawers and many 
other conveniences. The wagon box extend- 
ed over the wheels at each side and a top 
with a door at the front and a window at the 
back was made by stretching two layers of 
heavy canvas with blankets between over 
bows. These wagons are very comfortable. 
The camp tender moves these wagons from 
time to time in order to keep the sheep on 
good feed and keeps the wagons supplied 
with provisions, wood and water. The sheep 
require no water when there is snow on the 
ground. For this the camp tender has a 
separate wagon, a team and saddle horse, 
but his wagon not being equipped to live 
in, he camps with one of the herders. Dur- 
ing the winter months the wagons are placed 
near a high hill or cut bank for protection 


for the sheep against storms. During lamb- 
ing season several extra men are required. 
The herd is worked off of the bed ground 
each morning and the ewes with young lambs 
are left together and a day or two later put in 
with older lambs until there is a sufficient 
number for a herder and when the lambs are 
old enough several of these small bands are 
put into one herd. The main herd is moved 
from place to place until the lambing is over. 
Lambs dropped during the day are put into 
small bunches. Flags and lanterns are put 
out to protect them from coyottes and with 
some of the bunches that are being made up 
a herder carries his bed on a horse to the 
sheep, unrolls it and sleeps where the sheep 
are. During the lambing season there is a 
cook and wagon where several of the lambers 
take their meals. 

After lambing and shearing the herds are 
usually taken to the mountains for the sum- 
mer or until shipping time. The sheep are 
branded with some kind of a paint brand 
so they can separate them in case of a mix 
with other herds. In case of a mix they are 
taken to a sheep corral provided with a chute 
and dodge gate where they are separated ac- 
cording to brands. 


Outside of the small towns the people 
largely consisted of the owners of cow 
ranches and their cowboys. There were not 
many families living on ranches near me 
when I located here. Consequently there 
were not many women. The cowboys spent 
most of their time at the cow ranches during 
the winter and riding the range during the 
spring and summer months. During the 
winter. they would visit back and forth among 
the various cow ranches and amuse them- 
selves in various ways. When some settler 
and his wife would give a dance they would 
be on hand neatly dressed and well behaved 
in the presence of ladies. The good ladies 
would each bring a liberal supply of pies, 
cake and other good edibles. They would 
dance until midnight, the big eat would then 
be in order, after which the dance would 
begin again and last until after daylight. 
They would then eat breakfast and probably 
have a few more dances and go home. They 
would have some secluded place to put the 
sleeping children and by waiting until after 
daylight to start home the parents would 
avoid a mix up with the youngsters. Mrs. 
Brock and I don't dance but would attend 
the dances and enjoy meeting the people. 
There never lived any better neighbors than 
the pioneer people. It was quite common to 
go fifty miles to a dance and if there hap- 
pened to be a few young girls they were the 
belles of the country and it was really very 
amusing to see how polite the cowboys 
would be. I must say these were good old 
days when each and every one was inter- 
ested in the others welfare and no one was 
deprived of hospitality on account of not 
having met before. If a person drove up to 
a ranch occupied by a stranger the proprie- 
tor would come out and after addressing you 
would say, "Get out and come in," and when 
you went to leave (which might be the next 
day) he would say, "Call again any time you 
are in this part of the country." 

Our country picnics on Fourth of July 
were great events. I have attended when 
there was hot barbecued beef and fresh fried 
trout for every person present, speaking, 
horse racing, dancing and other amusements 
during the day and a dance at night. Many 
brought their tents and camp beds with them, 
prepared to stay over a day or two. It was 
a very common thing to see a man taking, 
care of the children while his wife was en- 
joying the dance and when night came thei 
camp beds were unrolled and the youngsters 
put to bed. When the parents got tired and 
sleepy they too would retire and the next, 
day have a good time visiting with their 
neighbors. Many of them had probably 
come forty or fifty miles or more. 

When I came here this was a great game 
country. The low lands were practically cov- 
ered with antelope, especially on the plains. 
Black tail deer were quite plentiful in the 
rough and hilly sections and some mountain 
sheep but they were principally in the moun- 
tains. There were sage chickens all over 
Wyoming and some willow grouse. This 
had been a great buffalo country but there 
were not many left when I came here. The 
Big Horn Mountains near me were covered 
with elk, deer, mountain sheep, bear, wolves, 
coyotes, foxes, lions, etc. Beaver were nu-l 
merous along the streams. Hunting fori 
hides, meat and sport by settlers, Indians 
and tourists killed the game off pretty fast. 
We had wild meat the year around and quite 
an assortment. 

We seldom salted our meat until we werej 
ready to cook it. In this climate of dry, 
pure air, meat will keep during the fall and 
winter months if it is hung up so the air can 
get to it but will spoil if piled together. Dur- 
ing the summer months by setting a perpen- 
dicular pole thirty or forty feet high with a 
pulley at the top and a rope to pull the meat 
near the top of the pole, the meat will keep 
fresh for several days. It would be above 
the flies and the sun seemed to dry it and 
form a crush on the outside. Beef can be 
kept in the same manner. The cattle men) 
had beef but very few settlers owned cattle, 
not so much as a milk cow and so the wild \ 
game was quite a help to the new settler, 
but it was some times hard to get enough 
other necessities to add to the fresh meat. 
There were very few hogs in this section of» 
the country at that time and poultry wasj 
very scarce. It was almost a year before 
I bought my first poultry and almost two 
years before I got my first milk cow. Two J 
of the stock men were kind enough to loan 
me some milk cows but wouldn't sell one 
here at home on account of the brand. 

The deer meat is good and the elk is fine 
But if you want mountain sheep you will I 

have to climb. 
Out on the hills and on the plains 
There is where the antelope range. 

VI ! 

When I came to Wyoming our supplies 
were hauled in with horses, mules and ox ! 
teams from Rock Creek, a small railroad l 
station on the Union Pacific Railroad two 
hundred and thirtv miles south and east of 


Buffalo. Some of our freight was hauled 
om Custer Junction on the Northern Pa- 
ific north and west of Buffalo. The rates, 
ere during the summer months, about one 
ent per mile per one hundred pounds and 
lore during the winter. 

The horse and mule outfits consisted of 
ight to ten head and three wagons. Each 
nimal was supposed to draw fifteen hundred 
ounds and in addition to this the feed con- 
umed during the trip. 

The ox teams consisted of from seven to 
ine yoke of cattle and three wagons and 
'ere handled quite differently from the 
orses or mules. With cattle they would 
lake what they called a breakfast drive, 
len lay over during the heat of the day and 
rive until after night for the afternoon drive. 
. well equipped outfit would have a wagon 
oss, cook, and day and night herder. One 
utfit I knew had one hundred and twenty 
xen. The horse and mule outfits did their 
wn cooking and horse wrangling. 
In 1886 the freight was hauled one hun- 
red and sixty miles from Douglas which was 
le terminus of the North Western Railroad, 
id later from Casper, a distance of one 
undred and thirty miles. In 1891 the Bur- 
ngton Railroad was completed to within 
grily^five miles of Buffalo. The freighting 
as then changed to the Burlington, which 
ter built on through and connected up with 
lie Northern Pacific, running to within thir- 
f-five miles of Buffalo. We freighted our 
applies from this point until the Wyoming 
ailway built from Clearmont to Buffalo, 
/hoa now Rock, and whoa now Rowdy! 
[ove along! The sky is cloudy, 
feel the mist and see the rain. 
he mud will be bad for this train, 
am hungry, yes I am, 

nd would like a biscuit and a slice of ham. 
/ere it not for my sweetheart back home 
would quit this job and begin to roam, 
am making some money, yes I am, 
nd saving it, yes all I can. 
will take it back home, you bet your life, 
am saving it for the girl I want for a wife, 
oor fellow, he is homesick and love sick, 

the symptoms I know, 
ut he will recover if back home he will go. 

I left Versailles, Morgan County, Missouri, 
jly 10, 1884. Having developed strong sym- 
toms of lung trouble I decided to go to a 
gh, dry climate. . After reaching Cheyenne, 
/yoming, by rail, D. C. Brown (who had 
companied me from Versailles) and I 
DUght two saddle horses, bridles, saddles, 
ime cooking utensils, bedding, provisions 
id two guns and started northwest, carry- 
g all of our equipment on our two saddle 
arses, camping out at night with no tent, 
fter traveling three hundred miles horse- 
ick we arrived at Buffalo, Johnson County, 
l/yoming, and located ten miles south of 
uffalo, August 1, 1884. In September I 
ent to Cheyenne where I met my wife and 
liild. After loading a four horse team with 
ipplies we started to our homestead three 
Lindred miles away. We made the trip in 
n days, reaching our homestead October 12, 

We pitched our tent and started on the 
ground floor to grow up with the country. 
The first thing was to build a house. I soon 
had a one room cabin built of pine logs haul- 
ed from the mountains, not showy but very 
comfortable. I bought a second hand cook- 
ing stove that had been hauled by an emi- 
grant from Colorado. Out of rough pine 
lumber I made some furniture consisting of 
bedsteads, tables, cupboard and some chairs 
and like the cabin they were not fancy to 
look at but very useful and comfortable. 
It is wonderful what an ingenious woman can 
do to make a home look neat and tidy with 
home made furniture. Mrs. Brock can give 
you some pointers along these lines. 

I began to improve in health but improv- 
ing my ranch and paying our money with no 
income made the sides of my pocket book 
finally touch absolutely empty. Well it is 
hard to down a Missouriau and keep him 
down. Something had to be done and done 
quickly. I would get out dry pine log fence 
posts, corral poles and fence stays for cow 
ranches, trade timbers for outlawed horses, 
break them to work ana sell them for work 
horses, and in this way get b r ead in the 
house. When I speak of a horse as an out- 
law I mean a horse that is dangerous to ride. 
I took contracts fencing land and getting out 
timbers for various things. I took a con- 
tract to fence three sections of land, furnish 
the posts and do the work, the land owner 
furnished the wire and in addition to this I 
got out telegraph poles for over one hundred 
miles. My pocket book began to look normal 
again. I had formed an acquaintance with 
some of the business men of the county and 
had some credit at the store and bank and 
had lots of business. I sold my ranch, bought 
another and went into the horse business. 
Later I added sheep by taking them on shares 
and to these I added cattle. I had been 
rather active in politics and was elected 
County Commissioner and re-elected at the 
expiration of my first term. At the expira- 
tion of my second term I was elected to 
the legislature. Later on I was again elect- 
ed for the four year term as County Com- 
missioner and again elected to the Legislature 
in 1912. Since that time I have refused all 
offers to accept an office. I never asked for 
an office nor asked any one to vote for me. 


I could relate enough personal experiences 
to make a large book but will give them to 
you in a condensed form. I have previously 
outlined to you the methods and customs of 
handling cattle, horses and sheep. I have 
had experience in each line of cow work from 
cowboy to foreman and general manager. I 
know what it is to sleep in a wet bed and 
know how a fellow feels getting out of his 
bed when the night is dark and the rain com- 
ing down, my horse and saddle wet, the cat- 
tle restless and the night so dark you didn't 
know when your horse might step into a 
prairie dog or badger hole and turn over with 
you, but these things are a part of the trade. 

I have handled all parts of the horse busi- 
ness and there is no part of the sheep busi- 
ness that I haven't taken part in. I was in 
the sheep business almost twenty-six years 


and sometimes had four winter bands or 
about twelve thousand head and to this would 
be added the lamb crop for the summer or 
until shipping time. I handled horses for 
many years and am still in the cattle busi- 
ness. I know what it is to make long rides 
and drives and know what it means for a 
running horses to turn over and fall on me. 
I know what it is to rope and tie down horses 
and cattle, to ride pitching horses and to be 
mounted on the hurricane deck of a runaway 
bronc. I have experienced the sensation of 
laying out over night with blanket and slicker 
for a bed and a saddle for a pillow and noth- 
ing to eat. It won't do for me to go into the 
details of my personal experiences for it 
would take too long to tell it and no one ex- 

cept those who have had similar experiences 
can realize the danger and hardships that we! 
sometimes had to contend with. While II 
have a few scars as reminders, yet at the 
age of sixty-five years, I am still in the ring. 
Since coming to Wyoming I have crossed 
the United States from the Aaltntic to the 
Pacific east and west, and from Canada to 
the Gulf north and south. My family spent 
four years in California where the orange 
blossoms grow. I was with them during the 
winter months, but Mrs. Brock and I often 
speak of the good old days when our ranch 
was like a free hotel for all comers and goers. 
It is with pleasant memories we think of 
some of our pioneer days. 
February. 1923. 

G j£ ts From April 1st to July 1st, 1924 

Stone, Mrs. Charles 2 films of interior of old Chinese Joss-House in Evanston, Wyo. 

2 blue prints of street scene in Evanston on Chinese New Year. 

Ruff, Mrs. H. A 2 photos Off Chinese men residents in Evanston. 

Watts Mr. A. E Gun collection; two wood carvings by Indian boy. 

Hovt Mr. Percy Framed Union Paicfic Folder, November 2nd, 1873. 

Framed picture Alert Hose Company, 1877-1890. 

Bonsel, Mr. W. A One buffalo horn. 

Logan, Mr. E. A Picture of Chief Washakie. 

. Picture of Cheyenne in 1915. 

Sherman, Mr. J. G Tomb-stone date 1857, from ruins of old Fort Laramie. 

Tones, Lena Lukens Blue heron killed on Little Bear Creek, Wyoming. 

Cole, Mr. C. W Picture Durant Fire Company, 1868-1905. 

Buffalo skull, found near Cheyenne. 

Whisler, Virgil Indian arrow head, found near Pine Bluffs. 

Hebard,' Dr. G. R Kodak Pictures. 

Purchase 2 Kodak Pictures. 

Stafford, Charles 1 Kodak Picture 

Gifts— Library 

R. B. Brown and pupils.... Souvenir History of Jackson Hole. 

Kuykendall, Mr. H. L Original Manuscript. 

Wagner, Mr. Henry (Jr.) Original Manuscript. 

Fourt, Mr. E. H Original Manuscript. 

Spaeth, Miss Elizabeth.... Original Manuscript. 

Bartley, Air. E. T Hopper Diary, 1863. 

Bruce, Air. Robert Wyoming Historical Sketch. 

Chapman, Air. M. A Two photostat copies of legal documents 1792, 1850. 

Skepper, J. W Letters. 

Hunton, Air. John Letter — Coutant to Hunton. 

Gordon, Air. J. H Original Poem. 

Shipp, Air. E. R Original Poem. 

Hunter, Airs Original Poem. 

Alissouri Historical 

Society - "Journey to Rocky Alountains 1839" — Dr. Wizlineus. 

"Three Years Among Indians and Alexicans" — James. 

(Drumm) "Luttig's Journal of a Fur Trading Expedition," in 1812-1813. 

Brown, Air. Jesse "The 'Black Hills Trails," by Brown & Willard. 

Snow, Airs. W. E - Alanuscript. 

Owen, C. AI 2 Original Alanuscripts. 

Purchased by the Department 
Crofut's Transcontinental Pacific Tourist," 1868-1869. 
Photostat records and maps of earlv Forts in Wvoming in 1868-1869. 
Freeman, Luther Original Army Letter. 


Thompson, Air. C. AI Certificate of characters, 1774. 

Brooks, Airs. B. B Old legal document, 1786. 

Gifts — Miscellaneous 

Holland, Air. AI Cheyenne in 1888. (pamphlet.) 

Schilling, Airs. Fred Advertising posters display. 

Coble, Airs. John List of Wyoming Resorts and ranches. 


fii^^^r- £l 



Vol. 2 

Cheyenne, November 1, 1924 

No. 2 

As an appropriate observance of George Washing 
ton's birthday, an appointment was arranged with 
Hon. George W. T. Beck, a collateral descendant of 
George Washington. There in the conservatory of his 
old stone mansion at Cody, I listened to reminiscences 
of the "Governor's" life, and by reading saffron let- 
ters, and much questioning, gleaned not a little of 
romance from the sidelights on the reminiscences. And 
thus was enjoyed contact with the thought which 
had been one of the "First Families of Wyoming," 
(as well as Virginia) to push onward the borders 
of freedom. The foundation for the following story 
is to be found verbatim in the State Historical Ar- 

It was indeed a felicitous manner in which to 
spend this holiday, and most edifying to come under 
the spell of the Governor's perfect English, modified 
by the soft cadences of his southern accent. "Gov- 
ernor" is a term of endearment used by his contem- 
poraries, a mantle that fits him well. 

This story might well be called "From Mount 

Vernon to Cedar Mountain," and will weave in the 

•elation of the East-Yesterday with the West-Today, 

even as the blood that fought for National freedom 

has been transplanted to the- Great West. 

True, there was the frontier border fringe of the 
untamed, unschooled, unlettered, which had to be 
reckoned with, but these indomitable scouts led on 
and dominated, to the end that there has been devel- 
oped in Cody a cultured mentality, national from 
many angles, in that through it filter the tens of thou- 
sands to Yellowstone Park ; here are two Govern- 
ment Departments, the Interior in the great Rec- 
lamation work, and the Agricultural, the Forest Ser- 
vice, with its "oldest Forest in the United States." 
Here also is a National Monument, Shoshone Cavern. 
And this month, July 4, brings to pass the unveiling 
of a Memorial to Colonel Cody, which it is thought 
in a future time will be brought under Government 
supervision. Indeed the mental tenor of the town is 
pre-eminently national.) — Writer's Note, by Margaret 

"Wyoming" — the first I knew of Wyo- 
ming was when as a boy I was with my 
father in Washington after the Civil War. 
He was fighting the battles of reconstruction, 
and getting Southern men back to their 
homes. (He served eight years in the House, 
and was serving a third term in the Senate 
at the time of his death.) 

Simon Cameron, Republican Senator from 
Pennsylvania,.- became a close friend of my 
father; they were both Scotch, my father 
having been born in Dumfries, Scotland. 

I remember Senator Simon Cameron nam- 
ing a new piece of land out in the West, 
marked on the maps when I was a boy as 
"a territory attached to Dakota." The Sen- 
ator was chairman of Committee on Terri- 
tories and named th£ new territory "Wyo- 
ming," after the Valley of Wyoming in Penn- 
sylvania. This was in '68. I remember my 
father made some definite remarks about it 
at the time — he didn't want any more north- 
ern states as it made more northern sen- 
ators, but, my father said, "If I were young, 

I should go there." This stuck in my mem- 
ory. There was at that time no population 
to speak of — just a wilderness — a few United 
States forts with soldiers to guard and pro- 
tect the emigrant trails. 

Asked about the large oil portrait paintings 
on the walls of the spacious living room. 
Mr. Beck said they were of his father and 
mother directly after "their marriage. And 
that reminded him of a copy of a letter from 
his father to Col. L. ( Lucius) Q. Washing- 
ton, one of the Washington family, of which 
the following is a true copy: 

"United States Senate, 
Washington, D. C, 
April 25, "89. 
Col. L. Q. Washington: 

Seeing that you are taking some interest 
in the Washington family, and knowing the 
friendship that always existed between you 
and my wife, I desire to say to you that 
very few, if any, were more nearly related 
to "General Washington than she. 

Her great grandfather, Francis Thornton, 
married Fannie Gregory, whose mother was 
Mildred Washington, the aunt and god- 
mother of General Washington. Their son. 
Col. John Thornton (Mrs. Beck's grandfa- 
ther) married Jane Augusta Washington, 
daughter of Augustine Washington, the Gen- 
eral's bjother. Their only son who reached 
manhoo"d was Mrs. Beck's father. 

By General Washington's will a large por- 
tion of his Kanawha lands were divided be- 
tween his sister, Bettie Lewis, and his niece. 
Jane Thornton, Mrs. Beck's grandmother. 
We got about 1,000 acres of these lands. 

You will observe that the relationship is 
very close, both on the father and mother 
side, so that my child. Miss Bettie Goodloe, 
and my son, George Thornton Beck, are 
about as closely related to General Washing- 
ton as any of their age. 

I thought yon might like to know the 

Yours truly, 
(Signed)" J. B. BKCK." 

The names "Betty" or "Bettie," "Jane," 
and "Thornton," are Washington family 
names and are the names of the three chil- 
dren of the family which made Cody's first 
history. Both daughters, Betty and Jane. 
received their formative education at the old 
home city of the ancestors in the District 
of Columbia, preferring to be graduated, 
however, from the State University or Wyo- 
ming. The elder daughter, Betty Goodloe, 
took a postgraduate course at Columbia Urn- 

(Copyright, 1924) 



Published by the Wyoming State Historical 

State Historical Board 

Governor — William B. Ross* 
Secretary of State — F. E. Lucas 
State Librarian — Flo La Chapelle 

State Historian — Mrs. Cyrus Beard 
Secretary of the Board 

Advisory Board 

Rt. Rev. P. A. McGovern, Cheyenne 
Dr. Grace R. Hebard, Laramie 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, Cora 
Airs. Willis M. Spear, Sheridan 
Mr. R. D. Hawley, Douglas 
Miss Margery Ross, Cody 
Mrs. E. T. Raymond, Newcastle 
Mr. E. H. Fourt, Lander 


George T. Beck Margaret Hayden 

Diary. Major A. B. Ostrander 

Handling the Mail at Fort Reno 

Major A. B. Ostrander 

From Fort Reno to Fort Phil Kearny 

Major A. B. Ostrander 

My : First Day at Ft. Phil Kearny 

- ; Major A. B. Ostrander 

Letter Van Voast, to Freeman 

Historical Sketch Patrick A. McGovern 

Sheridan County From Coutant Notes 

Sheridan County, History, Loucks 

..From Coutant Notes 

Maghee Letter From Coutant Notes 

Among the Books Historian 

Accessions Historian 

In Memoriam ...Historian 

versity, majoring in geology and law. She 
has since married Dr. Doyle Joslin, her wed- 
ding garment being lace of the third gener- 

At this point it was interesting to see 
another Southern-Western name, Buckner, 
showing the connection with our Cody fam- 
ily. "Yes," said the Governor, Montgomery 
Blair, postmaster-general in Lincoln's cabi- 
net, married Caroline Buckner. And glanc- 
ing further at the old musty book was seen 
this entry from the family Bible of long ago: 
"Margaret Buckner married George Wash- 
ington Thornton," and, said my host, "they 
are my mother's father and mother." At this 
time Mr. Beck showed me a letter, post- 
marked at Washington, July 6, '45, folded 
and sealed with wax, before envelopes were 
used, with the fascinating but unheeded in- 

scription, "Please tear this up." It was here 
T sensed a breath of romance and was per- 
mitted to read it "after the history lesson." 
With this promise we wrote more history, 
and the following is the Lincolnia: 

"That was the first time I saw Lincoln. 
Kentucky was getting so bad my father took 
all the family East to Washington, and I 
went with my father and my uncle, Mont- 
gomery Blair. We went to the White House 
and I saw Lincoln for the first time. Lin- 
coln was nice to me, a Southern boy, as he 
always was to children. (I was then seven 
years of age.) The next time I saw him I 
had gone to Philadelphia to school, and I 
saw his sarcophagus carried down Arch 
Street. There was enormous excitement and 
a parade, Philadelphia being the strongest 
of Union cities. This was about three years 

Here follows a copy of a letter from Miss 
Elizabeth Blair to my mother. Elizabeth 
married a cousin of Robert E. Lee, after- 
ward an Admiral in the U. S. Navy on the 
northern side. This is the letter previously 
referred to, postmarked at Washington, dated 
July 6, '45: 
"My dear Jane: 

I have not heard from you since leaving 
Washington, but suppose you reached home 
safely, and not without many regrets at part- 
ing with "Cousin William." He feels the 
loss of your society so very deeply, that I 
expect he never leaves his home, for in all 
my wanderings I have never met him. Do 
you expect to see him soon? I hear thai 
you are going to the north, and as I have 
at last determined to take a trip to Saratoga, 
[ thought you might like to join me. it is 
so much pleasanter to have company when 
traveling. Pa has given me but short notice 
— ten days to get ready. He wishes to leavd 
here on the 15th of this month. Now what 
do you think of it? You had better go for 
Pa is a first-rate traveler, going about so 
much as he lias done, and then he knows a 
great many persons, gentlemen and others, 
that we could be introduced to, so on that 
account alone we could have a pleasanter 
time than otherwise we should have. I have- 
written to an aunt who perhaps will go to 
matronize me, but I cannot say for certain.,! 
as I have had no answer yet to my letter, 
Capt. Hardy talks of going, so we'll each have 
a beau all to ourselves. 

Having set before you these inducements 
I hope you will conclude to go with me 
We can have plenty of fun together. I wil 
introduce you to some of my friends, and wi 
can trip it up and down Broadway, at ouiJ 
pleasure. I believe I forgot to tell you tha'l 
I shall make my first stay at the Sharon 
Springs, a few miles from Saratoga. They 
are equally pleasant and I give them prefer 
ence because the Dr. has ordered me then 
for my health. The waters are the same a: 
the White Sulphur of Virginia. The Dri 
says my liver, not my heart, is affected, 
have lately come to the conclusion that 
have no heart, its place being supplied b;j 
liver. Positive truth! Margaret is going t' 
leave school in three weeks and is delightea 



Last night I was awakened by a charming 
serenade, but unfortunately felt too sleepy 
to listen. Pa invited them in, which put 
them all in such excellent spirits that I was 
afraid they would play all night. 

James Selden stayed here last night until 
1 1 o'clock. We became so tired and sleepy 
that we struck up "Oh, we're all nodding, nid, 
bid, nodding," and we nidded and nodded 
until he was so affronted that he marched 
off. I think it was a first-rate hint, but he 
is quite mad. However, I do not intend 
crying if he is. 

This is the only news I can tell you, for 
it is dull here, beyond description. 

I 'lease give my love to your grandmother 
and Virginia, and it will oblige me very 
much if you answer this directly, for if you 
do not go with me, I must look out for some 
lady to keep me company on my travels. I 
would rather have you though. We can 
have fun. 

1 am dreadfully lazy this morning or I 
would not send you such a miserable scrawl. 
I will depend upon you to tear it up as soon 
as you have deciphered it, for I would not 
send it if I thought any one else should 
see it. 


Your friend, 

Capt. Hardy desires his best compliments 
:o the lovely Miss Jane and hopes he is not 
: orgotten. If you come down to Washing- 
ion, come soon. — E. 

Then the "Governor" told me how his 
nother, a wealthy belle of Virginia, had in- 
ferred the displeasure of that State by mar- 
•ying a "foreigner." 

"My grandmother, having married Gover- 
lor Clark, of Kentucky, was living in Frank- 
ort, the Capital of Kentucky. My mother 
anie from Virginia to visit her mother. My 

ather was a young lawyer at Lexington, I f alo ' calf hide with fur insjde beU 

vhere he met my mother, with the result of he had three sca i ps> As the other men had 

me about my education. I told them I had 
been to Rensselaer Polytechnic, Troy N Y 
so he sent me out to Mandan, S. Dak.', where 
I joined an engineering party, and set to 
work making notes and sketching the coun- 
try along the line of a survey. Soon I was 
running a rod and then a level. Then came 
winter and we stopped at a cantonment we 
built on the Little Missouri, just west of what 
is now Medora. The Sioux had gone to Can- 
ada and has not yet come back since the 
Custer right. We had a guard of soldiers 
and a number of Grosventres scouts. 

The spring of 79 I concluded to go West 
so organized a party, ten in all. Three 
friends of mine who had never been west 
joined me— Sedgwick Rice, from St. Paul, 
Hamilton Headley, of Lexington, Ky., and 
Albm Prince Dike, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

We had two teams, ten horses, and a good 
outfit, and struck west from the end of the 
Northern Pacific survey, crossing the Little 
Missouri, Rosser Creek, climbed over high 
mesas, and went westerly towards the Yel- 
lowstone River. There were no roads, of 
course, but being engineers we did not get 
lost. We were sometimes short of water. 
One day we had no water, so pushed forward 
to reach a fringe of timber which indicated 
a creek. Far in advance we heard heavy 
firing. We concluded it must be buffalo 
hunters. On towards evening we came to 
the creek and there we found three dead 
Indians and the whole country torn up with 
horse tracks. This was Cabin Creek, I think, 
a small sized stream but with plenty of wa- 
ter. The western men with me in the party 
took everything these three Indians had. 
They had nothing on but paint from their 
waists up, but one was the finest dressed 
Indian I ever saw. He had on a fine belt 
and his breeches were bautifully marked 
buckskin. His moccasins were made of buf- 

. love-match, and they were married. The 
Virginia relatives were so furious at her mar- 
ying a "foreigner" that for many years none 
f them would speak to her, as my father 
las born in southeastern Scotland on the 
auks of the Salwav Firth. 

When I was 21 I left Washington and 
,-ent to Leadville during the first excite- 
lent, on a prospecting trip. From Leadville 

went to the southeastern part of the Ute 
'cservation on the Grand River. My father 
ot a message to me to come to St. Paul. 
.s I thought perhaps my mother was sick, 

went. I had planned with two old pros- 
ectors (John Haskell and Jim Bird) to go 
) New Mexico and then to winter in Old 
lexico. But when I got to St. Paul my 
ither suggested that he did not think pros- 
acting was a legitimate way of making a 
ling, and wished me to go to go into either 
w or engineering, as I had been educated 
>r both. I did not like the law, so I decided 
) try engineering, and with that in view 

went to see General Rosser, Chief Engi- 
?er of the Northern Pacific Railroad. I 
Iced him for some work. He told me they 
ere turning away men then, I said 1 
ould take any kind of a job. He asked 

taken everything else I concluded to take the 
scalps. They had made me captain of the 
party, and I had the first rebellion then and 
there, as I said, "Here we camp," and they 
said, "No, we will travel!" and we did. Day- 
light came early, we traveled until nearly 
light, camped for an hour and after break- 
fast traveled all day, and that night struck 
the Yellowstone River. There we found a 
large Indian village on the north side of the 
river. They were the Sioux Indians coming 
down for a powwow with Colonel Miles, who 
was commanding Fort Keough. We had a 
great night with the Indians yelling, dancing, 
and beating tomtoms. We watched each 
other all night — the Indians on the north 
hank of the Yellowstone and we on the 
south. We went on in the morning and 
reached Fort Keough that night. The In- 
dians stayed at their camp for a while and 
finally came down and surrendered to Col. 
Nelson Miles. They were then put on a 
reservation in Dakota east of the Black Hills. 
The Indian fight that we had been behind 
was between a war party of the Sioux who 
made a raid on the Grosventres and stole a 
large number of their horses. The Grosven- 
tres were pursuing them but did not succeed 


in recovering their stolen property and lost 
a good many men. The Sioux made the 
raid because the Grosventres belong to the 
Sioux nation and had refused to join the 
other Indians in the Custer fight. I knew 
Colonel Miles and his wife, who had been a 
Miss Sherman, and in talking to the Colonel 
about the country he said, "Of all this coun- 
try I have seen, I think the Tongue River 
and Goose Creek is the best." 

We stayed around Fort Keough for a 
short time, and Sedgwick Rice there con- 
cluded to quit our party and later joined the 
army. He is now Colonel commanding Fort 
Brown, Brownsville, Texas. 

The rest of us struck west toward the 
Musselshell country, and then seeing the 
mountains to the south, which turned out to 
be the Big Horns, we remembered what Col- 
onel Miles had said, and we went south, 
crossing the Wyoming line, across Tongue 
River, Wolf Creek and Soldier Creek and 
Big Goose Creek, and camped on that creek 
a few miles below its canyon. As we 
crossed the divide between Soldier Creek 
and Goose Creek, I killed a deer and left 
it for the wagons to pick up. I then went 
down the small creek which we called Park 

I found everything I was looking for — 
fuel, grass, water. So I got a stake and 
wrote my name on it and made a claim on 
which I lived for many years. 

We had crossed Big Goose Creek at a 
point where the old Bozeman trail crossed 
it, and going about a mile up creek we made 
a camp for our outfit. Then I tried to per- 
suade the party to locate there as I had 
done. As there was a great deal of game, 
tine fishing, and a great many prairie chick- 
ens and grouse, the party consented to remain 
while I made a survey. 

I surveyed what is now Beckton down to 
the upper end of what is now Sheridan, 
taking about nine miles of Big Goose Creek 
— one claim for each of the party. 

Unfortunately, the western men in the 
party had seen results obtained in killing 
buffalo along the Yellowstone River and 
they were anxious to go back to the buffalo 
range, many hunters making from $3,000 
to $5,000 in "a season selling the hides to the 
steamboat traders who came up the river, 
eventually going to St. Louis to be tanned 
for leather." So when a little difficulty oc- 
curred in our party, it broke up and I de- 
termined to stay by myself. When it came 
to a settling up they claimed all the horses, 
though I had paid for a pair. They were 
anxious to get me to go, as I was a good 
shot and they wanted me to shoot the buf- 
falo, while they skinned and hauled, so in 
order to force me they claimed the horses, 
1 proposed we leaye it to the oldest man 
in the party, as he had no interest in the 
horses, but he was an old hunter and loved 
the wilds. Then we had our law suit before 
this oldest man. He declared that though 
1 had put up the money, the bill of sale in 
that country always carried the title and they 
had that. I asked them to pay me the $375 
I had paid — didn't think they could — but they 

raised the cash and paid me. That left me 
with a wagon, harness and outfit, but no 
horses. I asked for the horses for a few 
hours, and hitched them to the wagon, put 
everything I owned in it (I had a good out- 
fit), and drove down the creek across the 
old Bozeman crossing and went up Park 
Creek to where I had put my stake, and in 
a little bend of the road there was a nice, 
grassy bottom. I pulled my wagon in close 
to the bush where it would be well concealed 
and took the horses back to the party; then 
walked down and waded the creek about 
waist deep to get back to my wagon. As 
the party pulled out the next morning they 
went up the valley opposite where I was 
camped. My friend Dike jumped off the 
wagon, and came over and asked me if I 
was going to stay there by myself. I told 
him I was and he said he would like to stay 
with me. I told him as he had no horses 
either, he had better go, but he said if I was 
willing he would stay. So he ran and caught 
up with the wagon and threw his bed and 
war bag off. He was about one-half mile 
up the valley. The fellows never stopped 
and Dike had to run to catch up and get his 
bed and other things off. I didn't go to- 
ward them until I saw he was throwing 
things off, and dragging his bed and war 
bag. Then 1 met him and helped him carry 
things to camp. It was great fun; there we 
were 135 miles from the Yellowstone. We 
stayed a day or two in camp fixing up things, 
then made a cache of the nuts off the wagon, 
being afraid some one would steal it. Then 
for our bread we cooked some meat until 
it was hard and dry, and the fresh game we 
shot we used for meat. Then we started 
down Big Goose Creek. We didn't know- 
where we were going but \ye did know Big 
Goose Creek flowed into Tongue River, and 
that it was not more than 60 miles to Miles 
City where we could get horses. But that- 
was immaterial. We finally came to a man! 
on the site what is now Sheridan. His name 
was Philip Mandell, and he had four horses.^ 
We were delighted to find he was willing to 
sell two of them. He said they were broke 
to ride and drive. We paid $175 for the two, 
and then we drew straws for the horses to 
see "which would have which." Dike drew \ 
one that was slightly swayback. The one I 
got was a plump, round, stocky horse. Man- 
dell gave us enough rope to make hacka- 
mores, and with a blanket a piece we had 
carried for our bedding, we started to go 
home. Dike's swayback horse was all right 
to ride. When I got on mine I got off much 
quicker. He threw me ten feet in the air, 
a fright of a bucker. But we didn't mind a 
particle. He bucked me off at least ten times! 
until finally I remembered how the negro 
boys in Kentucky used to break thorough- 
bred colts. They used what they called a| 
jockey strap, a surcingle around the horse'sjj 
body, loose enough so that one could get hisj| 
knees under it. I fixed up a rope to take 
the place of this surcingle and succeeded in 
getting my knees under it before I was 
thrown; then I rode my horse. He could not 
throw me. We finally got home — back to 
our wagon. 


The next morning, bright and early, we 
thought we would enjoy a wagon ride, so 
we fixed up our wagon and harnessed our 
horses. It took us ten days of steady work 
to break the other horse to pull that wagon. 
But time was no object in those days. 

We then set to work to build us a cabin, 
which we did by digging trenches the shape 
we wanted the cabin and set in the trench 
green cottonwoods upright, binding the top 
with a flat log stringer with pin holes bored 
through and pins driven into the upright 
logs. Covered with a heavy dirt roof we 
considered ourselves safe against being burn- 
ed out either by outlaws or Indians. 

The question then was, What shall we do 
for an occupation? I wanted to prospect 
but Dike had an uncle who had made a for- 
tune as a wool commission man, and he said 
we should go into the sheep business as a 
source of revenue. I finally agreed and the 
question came up which should go and get 
the sheep. He said that I came from the 
country (he thought Kentucky was all coun- 
try), and that I should go. I objected say- 
ing that his woolly uncle should have taught 
him something about what he made his for- 
tune in. All I knew about was race horses 
and blooded stock. So we finally drew straws 
to*, that and it fell to me to go. He stayed 
at the ranch and built corrals. I drove the 
sheep back on foot. I hired a friend of mine, 
Wallace Green, to drive for me and do the 
cooking. I drove the sheep on foot. Two 
donkeys I had left in Colorado I also took 
along, as they were some help in crossing 
streams. I put a great many bells on my 
sheep so that I would not lose them in the 
night. Several nights in wind storms they 
drifted but I never let any get away. They 
fell into gulches and ran into sagebrush, but 
we got them back in the morning. I bought 
sheep in Southern Wyoming and we started 
the first sheep business in Northern Wyo- 

When I reached Powder River Crossing 
I found that Mr. Morton Fruen had estab- 
lished a big cattle ranch there and had 15 
or 20 cowboys in his employ — a big English 
outfit. The foreman with a bunch of cow- 
boys met me and told me that I would not 
be allowed to cross — that that was a cattle 
country. I told the foreman I had been in 
the country before Mr. Fruen and that I 
proposed to go on to my own ranch and 
home, which was on Big Goose Creek. I 
lad a talk with Wallace Green and told him 
to take the best horse and strike the back 
track and leave the wagon if anything hap- 
pened, but to be sure to get away and go 
south. I took the sheep with the donkeys 
and drove them to the river, and after^quite 
a siege I got the donkeys and part of the 
sheep across; but the bunch split on me. 
The cowboys were standing on their horses 
on the opposite bank. I had taken a double- 
barreled shotgun with me, which was rather 
in my way driving the sheep, and I deter- 
mined that the sheep should cross the river. 
When it came to coming back from the other 
■art of the bunch I experienced the delights 
of a fertile imagination as I turned and 
walked back across the river. I saw that 1 

was an easy target. I could almost feel the 
bullets going through me, but I determined 
not to show this crowd that I was afraid of 
them. When I was safely on the west side, 
the foreman reluctantly came down from 
the bank and told me that Mr. Fruen had 
concluded that as I was there in the country 
before his time I might go through. But 

he said no other d sheep man would 

ever cross that river. We got back to the 
ranch without further incidents. At the end 
of eight years of sheep business I finally 
closed out, at a profit of some $35,000. Sev- 
eral big sheep men of Sheridan County got 
their start from that bunch. I concluded if 
I stayed at it any longer I could speak the 
sheep language better than I could the Eng- 
lish. I knew half my sheep by names. When 
I called them they would come to me. 

I built the first flour mill in Wyoming 
on that ranch — ran it by water power. It 
still stands and is called Beckton mill. Archi- 
bald Forbes, former Governor-General of the 
Philippines, after I met some reverses, bought 
it from a bank. 

I also built a flour mill and put in an 
electric light plant and water works in the 
town of Buffalo. The railroad at that time 
had maps and blue prints and a right of way 
bought to the town, and then when they 
turned north to Sheridan instead of coming 
to Buffalo, I dropped a lot of money. 

I had irrigation license No. 1 out of Big 
Goose Creek. It is recorded as for farming 
400 acres ten miles west of Sheridan on Big 
Goose Creek. 

Eleven years were yet to intervene before 
I reached Cody, during which time I ran for 
Congress, and then for the Senate when there 
was a blocked legislature and no senator 

Then I organized the Sheridan Fuel Co. 
and operated it for two years, until I lost it. 

Later under a patent of my own I took 
the slacks of the Sheridan Fuel Company 
and worked the lignites into anthracite 
equivalents (the same process Ford is now 
making millions on), saving all the by-pro- 
ducts of low grade coals and using the fixed 
carbon for fuels. My final conclusion was 
that the proper way to use this western coal 
was to distil off all the volatile by-products 
which are very valuable, to grind up the 
fixed carbon residue, and with an air blast 
to burn it as you would an oil under your 
boilers. This will be done in all large plants 
in time. 

James Bros. 

The James Bros, lived on Goose Creek 
where the town of Big Horn now is. They 
were the first locators on Little Goose Creek 
near the road crossing. There were nine of 
them and a negro. They had disappeared 
from Missouri for two years; they were on 
Goose Creek, eleven miles south of me. The 
way I first happened to meet them, I was 
going from my ranch to Fort McKinney, 
and I took a pack horse to bring back sup- 
plies. At the head of Prairie Dog Creek in 
an aspen thicket lived an old Kentuckian 
named Elisha Terrill, there he had built a 
cabin. As he was a fellow Kentuckian I al- 
ways stopped with him. I had killed a deer 


in the thicket and took it to his house. While 
we were getting supper we heard somebody 
call at the door. Old Man Terrill went out 
and eight men came back into the house 
with him, which looked like a big mob in 
the country in those days; and it was. I 
simply put on some more meat in the frying 
pans, cooked supper for the crowd, and we 
sat around and talked for a while. Finally 
one of the men, Frank James, said to me, 
"Young man, make your bed down over 
there," pointing to the corner furtherest from 
the door. I asked him what business it was 
of his. Old Elisha Terrill said, "George 
make your bed over there." I didn't say any- 
thing more; I just took my blankets and 
threw them in the corner and lay down; but 
sort of kept my eyes a little open so I could 
see what was going on after these orders. 
After everybody had distributed themselves 
around, the last two men before they lay 
down shut the door, put their feet against 
it, cocked their rifles and laid them one on 
each side. Anybody touching the door would 
never have heard a sound; would have been 
shot dead. In the morning they said "You 
stay here for a quarter of an hour after we 
leave." I did. After they had gone old 
Elisha told me who they were, and warned 
me not to know them except by their first 
names, Jack and John, or whatever they 
happened to call each other. They frequent- 
ly came past my place after that but never 
bothered me or troubled any of my stock. 
To protect themselves from trouble they 
laid a trap for Frank Grouard, a scout at Ft. 
McKinney, and a very able one. On Lake 
Desmet, which is about twelve miles out from 
Ft. McKinney, there is a little stream comes 
in from the west and makes a point in the 
lake where there are some box elder trees 
and other brush, bushy trees. The James 
Bros, got a man to report to Fort McKinney 
that they were camped on this point by Lake 
Desmet.' They put up some shelter tents 
there that could be seen from the southwest 
and the place could lie easily taken by sur- 
prise down this bushy creek. Frank Grouard 
and a lieutenant and about 20 soldiers, imme- 
diately left Fort McKinney to take this camp. 
They came over the ridge and from a dis- 
tance saw these shelter tents and dropped 
into this creek valley, and coming down it 
they were ambushed by the James Brothers, 
ten of them then being in the Tames party. 
They were held up and not a shot was fired, 
though they were two to one. Frank Grou- 
ard and the force were notified that they had 
set this trap on purpose so that they could 
have a talk. They said they were doing no 
harm in Wyoming and wished to be let alone, 
and notified Frank and any of the men in the 
party that if they ever came out again to 
scout or look for them that they would be 
killed. Frank Grouard never went after 
them nor do I know of any expedition that 
was sent out to take them. 

A query? "But when did you come to 

"There wasn't any Cody. We came out 
to survey and get Cody started. There was 
an old fellow, Laban Hillsberry, a great 
walker, and he had tramped all over this 

country; had seen Cedar Mountain and been 
up the river. He was convinced that the 
river could be taken around that mountain, 
and if it could one could irrigate an enormous 
tract of country. Old Laban told me about 
this. Jerry Ryan, an old stone mason, uncle 
of Mrs. DeMaris, now owner of DeMaris 
Springs, had been over it with Hillsberry, 
and told me that he thought it could be done. 
So I concluded to make a survey and took 
Mr. Alger in with me as a partner. Then 
I hired Mr. Elwood Meade and party to come 
over and run some lines and make a survey 
of the Stinking Water, as we called the Sho- 
shone River then. In this party of eighteen 
there were six guests, among them my 
friend, W. Hinkle Smith, Horton Boal, Col- 
onel Cody's son-in-law, John Patrick, Captain 
George Stockwell and Andrew Stockwell. 
"Andy" Stockwell had lived with me for 
years at Beckton. The father of the Stock- 
wells, Colonel Stockwell, was the man who 
led "The Charge of the Light Brigade" of 
600 at Balaklava; their grandfather, their 
mother's father, was George Grote, the most 
celebrated of the Greek historians. Many 
Englishmen came here at that time. Eng- 
lishmen follow each other. The Stockwells 
bought a part interest in my ranch. Captain 
Stockwell raised polo ponies (and "Ned). 

We came across the mountains and struck 
the Big Horn River a little below the place 
where the town of Basin now is. Found the 
river was so high we could not cross it but 
would have to go down the east side to 
where Lovell had a ferry near the big can- 
yon. As we camped in a bunch of timber 
the idea struck us to have a race down the 
river on rafts. So we made a pool in the 
evening, and at 7 o'clock in the morning the 
race was to start, and the two men who got 
under the rope at Lovell ferry first were to 
win the pool. At 7 o'clock in the morning 
Mr. Hinkle Smith and I were the only ones 
that had our raft ready and in the water. 
As we pushed off. Captain Stockwell, not to 
be left, ran and jumped into the water, swam 
to our raft and went with us. The other 
three rafts never got off. So we made a 
journey down the river through Sheep Can- 
yon and after several adventures and a good 
many wrecks we reached the Lovell Ferry 
on our second raft at 10 o'clock the next 
morning, where we found Horton Boal wait- 
ing with our horses and refreshments. The 
wagons had all crossed safely. We went to 
Otto on the Greybull River and then We si 
through the Oregon Basin country, and fin- 
ally landed on Sage Creek. We camped 
about three miles below Frost ranch. From 
there we started running lines. We ran a 
line through the gap west of Cedar Moun- 
tain and around the Oregon Basin to the 
Meeteetse Rim. Then we moved to what 
was known as Buffalo Meadows on the Sho* 
shone above Cedar Mountain on the river 
and from there we ran lines from the present 
headgate of the Shoshone Canal and also to 
headgates high up the river. We then made 
a survey of the north side of the river, cover- 1 
ing what was then known as the Stinking 
Water Desert, which is now Powell Flat,] 
After we found it was feasible to irrigate a 


very large tract of land our party returned 
to Sheridan, going by way of Bonanza. The 
preliminary survey had been made and 
mapped. That was about 27 years ago. 

Then at Sheridan we proposed to organ- 
ize a company that fall. Colonel Cody, Mr. 
Alger and I started the organization. We 
elected Colonel Cody president of what we 
called the Shoshone Irrigation Co., the Cody 
Canal. We took in some gentlemen from 
the East: Mr. Nate Salisbury, Colonel Cody's 
partner, Mr. Bronson Rumsey, Henry Ger- 
rans, and George Bleistein. We raised some 
funds to start operations, and I took an out- 
fit ol" wagons and scrapers and about twenty 
men and teams and came over the moun- 
tains and started work. We camped near 
what is still the Marion Williams place. We 
had planned to take in the whole Oregon 
Basin and all the north side of the river. 
However, not enough money was forthcom- 
ing. To many of the eastern men the pro- 
ject was sport, and I was left to complete 
the work as best I might. I had to borrow 
money from Mrs. Hearst to finish the canal. 
This canal now furnishes the water supply 
to Cody and the surrounding country. 

Electric light plant. When we finally 
made up our town site company, we closed 
uu*».arrr commissary which we had run, sell- 
ing it to Mr. Gerrans and Mr. Bleistein; 
it afterwards became the Cody Trading Com- 
pany, of which ex-Senator J. M. Schwoob is 
now president. Colonel Cody proposed to 
build a hotel, which he finally did, and look- 
ing around for something to do, I concluded 
that I would develop water power on the 
river. I begged a lot of my friends to help 
me put in a power plant. They laughed at 
the enterprise and declined, but one of my 
■fed friends coming to my assistance helped 
me to float some bonds and I mortgaged 
what other property I had and put in the 
electric light plant on the river. The first 
year it didn't seem very hopeful, but since 
then it has carried on a fair business and 
I believe has given unusually good service 
for a town of this size. 

The Gavel 

Now I was shown the gavel which bore 
:late 1890. 11th Legislature Assembly of 
Wyoming, "Presented to President George 
F. Beck by members of the Council." "This 
ivas our last territorial Legislature," said Mr. 
Seek. "We organized as a State right after 

Order of the Cincinnatus 

"Col. John Thornton was Lt.-Col. in Gray- 
son's Regiment in Virginia during the Revo- 
utionary War. As his descendant I hold 
nembership in the Cincinnatus. This Society 
s made up of officers of the Revolutionary 
Bar and only one representative can follow 
—must be the oldest son of the most direct 
lescendant, the whole number never to ex- 
eed the original number. 

After these officers had formed the order 
>f the Cincinnati, the soldiers and others be- 
ran to think that these officers were rather 
rying to make a social distinction, and Tam- 
nanv Hall was organized in New York in 
>pposition to the Order of the Cincinnati, 
fed from a social order they finally drifted 

into a political machine and fell into the 
hands of the Democratic politicians of New 

The order took its name from Cincinnatus, 
who was called by the Romans to suppress 
an uprising in Rome that came near sweep- 
ing all Italy. Cincinnatus was called from 
the plow to save the Republic, and the motto 
comes down: "Give up all to save the Re- 
public." With the date "A. D. 1783," this 
motto in Latin is inscribed upon the badge 
now held by Hon. George T. Beck, Cody, 

No story or early or present history of 
Cody is complete without mention of its 
gracious official hostess, Mrs. George T. 

At fourteen years of age Mrs. Beck, then 
Miss Daisy Sorrenson, came to make her 
home with her sister, Mrs. D. A. Tinkcom. 
Neither of the girls previous to their west- 
ern venture, had seen a lumber wagon nor 
a log house, which for a time were to be their 
substitutes for carriages and mansions. Here- 
tofore trips from the city to ranches had 
been their education in "roughing it." 

While there were no riding contests in the 
very early days, the young lady soon won 
recognition as a fine horsewoman, having 
acquired her "balance" riding the western 
horse "sidewise," with only blanket and sur- 
cingle. She later adopted the "astride" fash- 
ion, however, and used a saddle. 

Mrs. Beck taught the first school in the 
Cody country, known as the Marquette 
school, on the South Pork of the Shoshone 
River. Later she took a business college 
course at Helena, Montana, and became sec- 
retary to the Cody Canal Company. Here 
our west-country romance developed, and, 
with the subject of our story, she now pre- 
sides as mistress of Cody's stone mansion. 
Here have been entertained Secretaries of 
State Lane, Daniels, and Garrison, Gover- 
nor Carey, Senator Kendrick, Mayor Mitch- 
ell, of New York; General Wood, Hon. Ed. 
T. Clark. Mr. A. A. Anderson, artist, and 
first supervisor of the oldest forest in the 
United States, the Shoshone; L. G. Phelps, 
leading millionaire cattleman of the Buffalo 
Bill country, now deceased; W. R. Coe, New- 
York philanthropist, who has adopted Wyo- 
ming as his official residence, casting his vote 
in this state. 

Indeed, the Beck home is always a social 
center. If there is but one member at home 
the lights of hospitality are shining. 

Mrs. Beck contributes constantly to tin- 
musical life of the community, and is a lady 
of high spiritual attainment. 


Codv, Wvo., Feb. 22, 1924. 


Fly Leaf. S. C. Abbott & Company. News 
Dealers and Stationers 
Farnham Street, Omaha, Nebraska 

Capitol Building, Omaha, Nebraska Ter. 
October 1st, 1866. Smiths Ranch, 11 miles 
from Omaha, N. T. October 3rd, 1866. 

October 6th, 1866 — Passed through on LJ 
P. R. R. Columbus, N. T. Shell Creek, 


Grand Island Station, Silver Creek, Wood 
River and Kearney Station. 

October 7th, 1866— Crossed Platte River in 
express wagon. Met Captain Freeman and 
Lieut. Arnold. 

October 11th, 1866 — In camp with 2nd U. 
S. Cavalry at Plum Creek, N. T. 

October 14th, 1866 — Arrived Fort Mc- 
Pherson, Cottonwood Springs, N. T. 

October 15th, 1866— Saw my first wild In- 
dian of the plains. 

October 21st, 1866 — Arrived Fort Sedg- 
wick, Col. Ter. 

1866— Went over to Jules- 

-In camp at Lodge 

October 22nd. 
burg, C. T. 

October 24th, 1866 
Pole Creek Crossing. 

October 25th, 1866 — Mud Springs; out on 
the prairie looking at Court House Rock, 2 
p. m., gazing at Chimney Rock; 5 p. m. Here 
are five of us cooking our supper in camp 
at the foot of Chimney Rock. 

October 26th, 1866 — 2 a. m. Just relieved 
from guard at Camp Mitchell. 

October 27th, 1866 — Cold Springs ranch, 

22 miles from Fort Laramie. 

October 29th, 1866— In good quarters at 
Fort Laramie. 

November 4th. 1866 — Peters and I taking 
our first view of Laramie Peak and the Black 

On the march from Fort Laramie, camped 
as follows: 

November 19th, Big Bitter Cottonwood, 
D. T., 20 miles. 

November 20th, Horse Shoe Creek, 18 

November 21st, Bridgers Ferry, 16 miles. 

November 22nd, camp on North Platte 
River, 20 miles. 

November 23rd, mouth of Sage Creek, 14 

November 24th, Sage Creek camp, 18 

November 25th, Wind River camp, forgot 
to put down miles. 

November 26th, Humphreys camp, 24 

November 27th, Dry Fork of Powder river, 

23 miles, stuck in big storm. 

November 29th, Thanksgiving Day and 
stuck here by the storm but had a chicken 

November 20th, arrived at Fort Reno about 
2 p. m. 

December 22nd, Jack Phillips went 
through; awful big fight at Phil Kearny. 

January 10th, sick in hospital at Fort Reno, 
D. T., of mountain fever. 

February 20th, 18o7 — Discharged from the 
United States Army. 

February 21st, 1867— Started for Fort Phil 
Kearny with thermometer 20 degrees below 
zero. Camped at Crazy Womans Fork. 

February 22nd, 1867 — Clear creek. 

February 23rd, 1867 — Fort Phil Kearny, 
D. T. Met Jim Bridger. 

February 24th — Got a job as clerk in Quar- 
termaster's office under Gen. G. B. Dandy. 

March 24th — Hunting up Piney creek; got 
a big scare from one of the Crow Indians 
who are here for a big swap. 

April 22nd — Got notice that I must go 

east for examination for a commission in the 
Regular Army. 

April 23rd — Left Fort Phil Kearny and 
camped at Buffalo Wallows, thirty-five miles 
from P. K. 

April 24th — Arrived at Fort Reno. Had a 
little scrap with Indians between Clear creek 
and Crazy Woman's Fork. 

April 25th — Found all that was left of Van 
Valzah's lost mail. 

April 27th — Major Van Voast lost his two 
horses in camp. 

May 1st — Arrived at Fort Laramie. 

May 5th — At Fort Mitchell, en route for 
Julesburg and passed Chimney Rock; mid- 
night at Mud Springs. 

May 6th — Passed Lodge Pole creek and 
arrived at Fort Sedgwick. In camp of 30th 
U. S. Infantry. 

May 10th — Visited Julesburg. 

May 14th — Arrived at North Platte City, 
Neb. Ter. 

May 15th — Omaha, Nebraska. 

Copied by Major Ostrander from his origi- 
nal diary. The little memo book in which 
the entries were made was bought in Omaha 
just before the Major left Omaha for the In- 
dian campaign. 

Handling the Mail at Fort Reno, D. T., in 
1866 and 1867 

The arrival, overhauling and distribution oi 
mail at Fort Reno, D. i., in those days was 
an important event. It was anxiously await- 
ed and longingly looked for. its arrival and 
"coming in" was an "episode." The day and 
date ot its arrival was an "epoch," for inci- 
dents and circumstances were rememberet 
among the men as happenings from and after 
that point of time. 

The following "epitome" will give an ac< 
count of methods used in handling it. \V( 
generally had trom an hour and a half I 
three hours notice of its approach and arrival 
About five miles by the trail to the souti 
and across the Powder River valley, was higl 
land, which at its western extremity ended ■ 
a sharp point and a bluff. The trail iron 
Fort Laramie wound around this point anc 
watchful eyes were scrutinizing that poini 
every second during daylight, hoping, lung* 
nig or dreading to see who or what migh 

After turning this point the trail descendet 
gradually m a northeasterly direction unti 
it struck the timber in the river bottom laiu. 
and then turned sharply to the west unti 
it reached a point between the fort prope.j 
and the lower corral. 

According to conditions of the weather am 
of the trail itself, the time made between th« 
point of first observation and arrival at thi 
tort, would vary; but it was always lonj! 
enough, when a mail party had been sighted 
to keep everybody on the anxious jjeat witl 
longing anticipations. 

On arrival at Post headquarters the mail 
carrier would bring in his bag and turn ij 
over to the Post Adjutant, Lieutenant T. I 
Kirtland. The only key to this bag was ii 
the possession of the Lieutenant and he kep 
it under lock and key in a drawer of hit 
table. The Lieutenant would unlock the pad 


lock, remove it, and then place the lock and 
key back in the drawer. All this carefulness 
did seem ridiculous to me in view of the fact 
that, as two headquarters clerks (Clarke and 
myself) did all of the separating, sorting, and 
some of the final distributing of the mail 

A blanket was spread out on the floor, 
and after the lock and key had been pro- 
vided with such proper protection, the bag 
was taken by Clarke who withdrew the 
leather strap from between its metal guards, 
and then turning it upside down, the con- 
tents were dumped in a pile on the blanket. 
The bag would then be placed so that its 
mouth would be open and in a position so 
that we could throw into it all matter des- 
tined to points beyond Fort Reno. 

Then Clarke and myself began our duties. 
On our knees and opposite each other, with 
the pile between, with both hands we began 
operations. Every article addressed "Fort 
Reno" was thrown off in a pile by itself, and 
each one for points above was thrown back 
into the bag at once, so that when the last 
piece was handled the separating was com- 
pleted. Clarke would restrap it; the Lieu- 
tenant would re-lock it and the mail carrier 
_could proceed on his way. All this before 
ouT^ own mail could receive any attention. 

The first time I tackled this work I had 
only been at the post less than one week and 
was green at it and guess I was inclined to 
talk too much in the way of criticism of the 
methods, modus operandi, etc., and it is a 
wonder to me now that I didn't get a more 
serious calling down than was given me in 
the way of explanation at the time. 

On my knees, leaning forward, my back 
twisting from side to side, and both hands 
busy, I got tired and straightening up for 
a few seconds rest, I remarked "This is a 
nice thing for us to be doing; handling every- 
body else's private letters." Clarke merely 
gave a grunt and said "What's the matter 
wi' you?" "Well," I said, "this mail ought 
to be put up separate at Fort Laramie. They 
could make one big bundle for us and one for 
each post above, then all we'd have to do 
would be to take out our own bundle and let 
the rest go on." 

Clarke gave another grunt and said "Shut 
up and go to work." Lieutenant Kirtland 
and Van Valzeh (the mail carrier) were seat- 
ed near by watching us. The Lieutenant re- 
marked in a pleasant tone of voice, "That 
would make four separate bundles to leave 
Laramie with; one for Bridgers Ferry and 
one for each of us, Reno, Phil Kearney and 
C F. Smith, and as they would vary so much 
in bulk and weight Van Valzeh would find 
it hard work to balance the sack on the 
back of his horse." 

I kept right on working and talking too, 
lor I said "They could put 'em in separate 
sacks then; one sack labelled for each Post. 
There'd be no delay here then, only long 
enough to put our own "up-above" mail in 
its proper sack. The Lieutenant, still in a 
peasant mood, said "I guess Van would find 
some trouble handling four sacks on one 

I still thought I had the best of the argu- 
ment when I said "He always has three or 
four soldiers for an escort and I guess each 
one of them could carry one sack to help 
him out." 

I looked up at Van and he was smiling, 
but the Lieutenant continued in a more sober 
tone, "The mail carrier is sworn in by the 
government and is responsible. He gets ten 
dollars a day for it while on the trip and 
no one else is allowed to handle the bags." 

Clarke was growing impatient and let out 
a grunt, so I subsided but was not convinced. 
Then, as now, it was a mooted question in 
my mind, if a soldier could not carry or 
handle a locked bag of mail while en route 
how was it that us two enlisted men were 
allowed to handle every individual article of 
its contents. I give it up. 

Just before the conversation described 
above, I had picked up two letters addressed 
to myself and in my delight I exclaimed 
"Glory" and started to put them in my 
pocket. A quick exclamation from Clarke- 
caused me to look up. He said "Throw 'em 
out" and nodded in direction of our own mail 
pile. "But they are for me," I said, hand- 
ing them to him so that he could read the 
addresses. He took them and without even 
looking at the address, threw them in the 
Reno pile, but looking me straight in the 
eyes, gave a wink and nodded toward the 
officer. I was afraid to enter into any dis- 
cussion with him in presence of the officer 
but made up my mind to have it out with 
him later, but before the mail was finally 
disposed of I found it was unnecessary and 
that Clarke had really done me a kindly act. 
Having disposed of the mail carrier, our 
own mail was all placed on the Adjutant's 
table. We put it there addresses up and the 
Lieutenant himself saw to its distribution. 
Mail for officers and their families was laid 
one side and delivered to them or their rep- 
resentatives at once. Mail for enlisted men 
was separated by companies and handed to 
the Orderly Sargeants who were always on 
hand and waiting for it, and lastly the head- 
quarters mail was disposed of and I got 

When the Lieutenant handed me a bunch 
of six letters there was a smile on his face 
and I knew he must have got onto that by- 
play during the separating. 

Once the mail arrived in the night, long 
after taps, and the procedure differed in a 
slight degree — the blanket was spread on the 
dirt floor of our bunk room in rear of the 
office. Candles were lit and stuck around 
in niches and blankets hung before the win- 
dow. Upon completion of v the separation by 
Posts and the mail carrier had received his 
sack and departed, our mail was, as usual, 
placed on the Adjutant's table, blankets be- 
ing hung up before door and windows and 
the Lieutenant did his "Little Bit." 

If there were any officers present they 
could of course get their mail at once, no 
matter what hour it was, but the enlisted men 
had to wait until after reveille the next morn- 

Generally it would be sent over to com- 
pany quarters at "Breakfast Call' and some- 


times some poor devil would become so in- 
terested on his news from home or else- 
where that he forgot, and neglected to put 
in the time after breakfast in brushing up 
and polishing his accoutrements preparatory 
to inspection at guard mount, with the result 
that he was ordered to "Fall out" and re- 
ceived a reprimand and got "police" or some 
other unpleasant duty, instead of an assign- 
ment as "Orderly" for the day, to Command- 
ing Officer and Post Headquarters; a job 
eagerly strove for by every soldier coming on 

(Signed) A. B. OSTRANDER. 

From Fort Reno to Fort Phil Kearny 

The next morning Curley gave me a good 
warm breakfast while it was still dark and 
I returned to the office, got my valise, box 
of grub and blankets and put them at the 
gate near by, to await for my transporta- 

Very soon the wagon drove up and a 
mounted man was with it. I learned after- 
ward that he was wagon-boss for the outfit 
and his name was Stanton. 

He asked if I was the boy that was going 
up with them and on my answer "yes, sir," 
he said, "All right, I will fix you up." He 
dismounted, untied the cord which held the 
canvass cover at front of the wagon and 
climbed up inside. He pulled down a couple 
of sacks of corn and filled the space between 
them with empty gunny sacks, thus making 
a good seat. I handed him my box of grub 
and valise, which he piled up in back and 
as he got down I climbed in. He then hand- 
ed me my blankets and told me to arrange 
them to suit myself. 

He had fixed my seat about two feet or 
more from the front board and loose hay 
was packed in the front half way to the top 
of the box. On top of this was spread a 
couple of gunny sacks and he explained, that 
space was arranged for the dog and he rode 

In a few minutes the Captain rode up, the 
dog jumping and barking around him. The 
officer himself dismounted and giving his pup 
a boost, landed him at my feet. Surveying 
the arrangements the officer remarked, "I 
guess you'll both be as comfortable as can 
be expected," and right here I will say, al- 
though the men did suffer awfully and frost 
bites and freezing were numerous, I was not 
even cold at any time during that ride to 
Phil Kearny. The dog was more protection 
than hot bricks or warming pan could have 

By referring to my little memorandum 
book I find the following entry: 

"February 21st, 1867. 

"Started for Fort Phil Kearny with two 
companies 2nd U. S. Cavalry. Thermometer 
20 degrees below zero." 

After we got out on the prairie and away 
from the protection of the stockade the wind 
was awful cold, so I tied the canvass cover 
down in front to a ring, and pulled the cape 
of my overcoat over my head. My hair was 
unite- long and came down over my ears and 
neck, so with all of this protection I was the 
luckiest one in the whole outfit so far as 

protection against the elements was con- 

We reached Crazy Woman Forks that 
night and a place for camp was selected well 
down in the underbrush and near a bluff 
on the south side and thus received some 
protection from the cold and bitter wind. 

I remained in my snuggery until camp fires 
were well under way and then, providing 
myself with some crackers and a can of 
chicken, I got out of the wagon, but was so 
stiff and cramped up from the long ride in 
such close quarters, with a dog to hold me 
down, that I had to jump around for quite 
a little while to get limbered up and the 
cramps out of my legs. 

Finally I went to one of the fires and put 
my can of chicken among the coals to warm 
it up, of course cutting off the cover first. 
Just as I was beginning to eat, a soldier came 
over to me and said, "The Captain wants to 
know if you'd like a cup of hot coffee?" I 
was very quick to answer, "You bet I would," 
and he turned away, but in a very few min- 
utes returned with a tin cup that held over 
a pint of hot coffee, f surely did enjoy that 
supper and then went over to return the cup. 

As. I was telling the soldier to thank the 
Captain for me a voice spoke up from a tent 
near by. "Come in here." The soldier nod- 
ded his head towards the tent saying, "Go 
in, he wants to speak to you," so I entered. 

There was a small box heating stove, a 
couple of empty boxes, one of which was 
used as a candle stick by melting enough 
grease to hold the candle perpendicular, and 
his bedding arranged on the ground. He re- 
tained his seat on the other box and I stood 
by the warm stove. 

"Captain Proctor told me that you had 
served under General Phillip St. George 
Cooke," said he. "Yes, sir; I was with him 
over two years," I answered. He smiled as 
he continued, "I served under him for over 
eight years before the war as a soldier in the 
2nd Dragoons. He was our Colonel and it 
was he that recommended me for a commis- 

This of course brought forth quite a con- 
versation dealing with the idiosyncracies ol 
the old General. I remember in particular 
he asked me if the General was still inter- 
ested in trying to improve upon his "Tac- 

At the beginning of the civil war "Cooke's 
Cavalry Tactics" was the standard for cav- 
alry, as "Hardee's" was for the infantry, li 
told him that very much of the work I had 
done for the General was copying materia 
referring to tactics. He laughed and saic 
that more than once after the Colonel hac 
drawn up a plan of formation or evolution 
they would go out and put it into practice 
and sometimes there would be an awful mb 

The Colonel would grunt and swear, dis 
miss the drill and go back and work it al 
over again until he succeeded in making i| 
nearer perfect. 

He concluded the interview by sayin| 
"Proctor showed me a letter he had fron! 
General Cooke in which he gave you a lim 


character and if there is anything I can do 
ior you up here I will be glad to do it." 

I thanked him, bid him good night, and 
returned to my wagon. When I got there 
[ saw Stanton, the wagon-boss, standing near 
tnd I asked him what the Captain's name was 
is I had not even heard that yet. He re- 
plied, "Why, that's old Captain Patrick; he 
tias been in the army over forty years, come 
up from a private soldier and I guess he must 
je sixty years old or older." My curiosity 
■as satisfied and I went to bed. 

1 had a good night's sleep and was quite 
romfortable, but I did miss the dog; he had 
■emained in the tent with his master. 

We made camp the next night at Clear 
Creek and the Captain again sent me a big 
:up full of steaming hot coffee. Nothing 
further of interest occurred here. 

We got an early start the next morning 
Hid some time in the afternoon we passed 
ilong by Lake DeSmet, crossed Piney Crook 
ind coming around the point at base of Pilot 
Hill, Fort Phil Kearny was right before us. 

The approaches were far different from 
those at Reno. There, our first view of the 
fort had been from a high elevation and its 
whole interior and surroundings were visible 
it a glance, but here, we were in a sort of 
l>oTr&m or low land, and the fort was on a 
high plateau and only the stockade and roofs 
af a few of the buildings could be seen. The 
flag on its high staff flew out glorious and 
it was a welcome sight. 

Our appearance was quickly noticed and 
men appeared at different gates giving us a 
welcome similar to the one we had received 
dii recalling Reno. Winding our way up the 
hill the wagon I was in went in at the water 
i?ate and passing by a sort of corrall with 
hay stacks and forage piled up, we drove 
up to a very long and narrow building ex- 
tending north and south and stopped at the 
door about middle of the south side. 

The teamster got down and commenced 
to unload things from back part of the wa- 
tpii. The wagon-boss rode up and told me 
f could put my things in these for the pres- 

I went inside and found a large room with 
^ix or eight bunks built up; a big heating 
>tove and some feed boxes. 

He informed me the room was used by 
wagon-bosses only, but would fix it so that 
[ could bunk in there until I could get locat- 
ed. Told me to put my traps in one of the 
Empty feed boxes and then rode off. 

And so 1 had arrived at Fort Phil Kearny. 

My First Day at Fort Phil Kearny 
I had secured a lodging place and having 
several hours to spare before bedtime I con- 
cluded to do as I had done on all previous 
occasions where I first arrived at a new Post 
— go on a prospecting tour and get the lay 
:>\ the land, location of buildings, etc. 

About one hundred feet to the west of 
the building in which I was located, another 
stockade extended across from the north to 
the south with an open space of about fifteen 
feet not far from the south end. About the 
center of this stockade was a two story 
building, one-half of which was built up on 

each side of the stockade, with a cupola or 
observatory on top. 

Passing through the open space, or gate- 
way, I found myself in the Fort proper. 
Along the south side, and at my left, was a 
long row of buildings, one of which I quickly 
discovered was the sutler's store, and beyond 
it was a row of stables. 

Ahead of me, and not far from the center, 
was the Commanding Officer's house. Dis- 
tributed around on three sides were barracks, 
and of course a flag pole in the center of 
the parade ground. Over on the north side, 
and close up to the stockade were several 
buildings used as officers' quarters and of- 

There was a gate on the north side, just 
to the left of which was a building which 1 
soon learned was the district quartermaster's 

Of course I naturally drifted into the sut- 
ler's store the first thing, and the men I met 
there and the acquaintances I there formed 
will be left for another chapter. 

Along after dark I returned to my bunk 
room and sat up until quite late listening to 
the conversation of those wagon bosses and 
packers, and right there and then I formed 
opinions which I have never had occasion 
to change. One was that they and their 
subordinates had not been fully appreciated, 
nor had public sentiment ever been ex- 
pressed as to the dangerous nature of their 

The military, both officers and men, per- 
formed deeds of valor and courage, and en- 
dured all manner of privations and suffer- 
ings, and they have received honor, both in 
song and story and many by personal men- 

The old-time scouts, guides, trappers, and 
mountain men made history, and writers have 
sought them out to preserve a record of their 
wonderful deeds and achievements, both as 
individuals and as a class; but who ever read 
of the work performed in those days by 
wagon bosses, teamsters and packers? I 
never have, and yet more than often they 
endured all that others did in addition to 
their regular duties. 

In published accounts of depredations, or 
in Indian attacks, there has been sometimes 
occasional mention "a teamster was killed," 
but never have I seen either eulogy or public 
expression of credit to their service. 

On the trail when there were indications 
of an actual attack or a genuine battle with 
Indians, the packers and teamsters, were the 
ones to make the corral and keep control of 
their stock. Under undue excitement one 
or two mules might stampede a whole out- 
fit, and a stampede under such conditions 
was fully as disastrous as a successful charge 
of wild Indians. 

A Sunday school teacher in a den of wild 
animals, in an endeavor to subdue or pacify 
them, would not meet with more danger or 
be placed in a more critical condition requir- 
ing a cool head and a steady hand. He 
would be about as successful as a weakling 
or an inexperienced person. These packers, 
teamsters and wagon bosses may have been 


considered as tough characters. They had 
to be, for theirs was a tough job. 

Many of them were hard drinkers, hard 
swearers and addicted to all the vices, but 
in their particular line they were a necessity 
and most valuable men — I might better say 
absolutely indispensible. In cases of neces- 
sity they always proved their efficiency and 

It was with such a body of men that I 
spent my first evening at Fort Phil Kearny. 

Stanton, as the latest wagon boss arrival, 
occupied the center of interest, and was kept 
quite busy answering questions from those 
who were liable to accompany the next out- 
fit going down the trail over which we had 
just arrived. 

His descriptions of the difficulties encoun- 
tered were not only interesting to me, but 
seemed to impress his co-laborers as they 
might benefit from his information. 

There were several men at the store that 
evening who had been in charge of wood 
trains and other work in the vicinity of the 
fort and their stories were both thrilling and 

And yet, no public expression, giving them 
credit for their great and arduous work, has 
ever been made, to my knowledge. And so 
ended my first day at Fort Phil Kearny. 

The above military history was taken from 
the original manuscript of Major Ostrander 
and is owned by the Wyoming Historical De- 

Headquarters, Fort Reno, D. T. 
August 9th, 1867. 
Bvt. .Major H. B. Freeman, U. S. A., 

Captain B, 7th Infantry, 
Commanding Escort. 
Major : 

Having been officially informed by Mr. 
Litchfield, Wells Fargo and Company's agent 
that there are on the road between this post 
and La Prele, eleven (11) ox trains, enroute 
for Fort Philip Kearney and Fort C. F. 
Smith; eight (8) of these trains being under 
one escort of 30 men from La Prele and the 
advance of these trains being expected to 
arrive tomorrow; you will remain at this 
post till the advance train arrives, when you 
will proceed with the train now here in such 
manner that you will afford partial protection 
to the trains following in your rear. Two 
trains as an advance. Can leave this post 
together, under your own personal charge — 
with the beef cattle belonging to Govern- 
ment and it is requested that you leave, say 
IS men — to follow you with the next train. 
Escorts of ten men from this post will be 
given to each train that follows after and 
these trains will be hurried up, so that there 
will not be a greater distance between trains, 
than is necessary to obtain water. 

It is believed that you might with pro- 
priety, let these trains close to a shorter dis- 
tance after you reach Crazy Woman — or 
plenty of water. You will use your discre- 
tion, however, in the matter, doing what you 
think is best. 

It being impossible on account of the want 
of water between this and Crazy Woman — 

to send these trains together and it bein 
impossible to furnish large escorts to eac 
from this point, the undersigned assumes tn 
responsibility of holding you here, in ordf 
to carry out, what he decides the best maniu 
of getting these trains to Fort Philip Keai 

I am Major. Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Major 18th Infantry, 
Comdv Post. 

St. Mary's Cathedral, Cheyenne, Wyomin 

The history of the Church in Cheyenne i 
its early years is practically a history of th 
diocese; for after Fort Laramie it is one i 
the oldest settlements in the state. With th 
building of the Union Pacific Railroad in tli 
fall of 1867, there was a great influx of se 
tiers, and Cheyenne grew up, so to speal 
over night. The Rev. Wm. Kelly was sei 
by Bishop O'Gorman of Omaha, to who* 
jurisdiction this territory belonged, to orgai 
ize the Catholics and build up a parish. A 
has been noted in the general history of th 
diocese, his territory extended from Sidney 
Nebraska, to Wasatch Canon, Utah, and t 
the north as far as Ft. Laramie. There wer 
no settlements north of Ft. Laramie. 

Fr. Kelly set to work with characteristi 
energy and in 1868 was able to dedicate 
frame church (under the patronage of S 
John Baptist) at 21st and O'Neil Streets, o 
the northwest corner, on four lots donate 
by the Union Pacific Railroad Company. . 
few rooms attached to the church served a 
the parochial residence, and the entire coi 
of the building was $4000.00. Most of th 
congregation came from Camp Carlin, a gm 
ernment supply station situated half way b( 
tween the present Cheyenne and Fort Ru< 
sell. Fr. Kelly remained in charge lint 
October 9th, 1869. After leaving Cheyenn 
he did general missionary work in Nebrask 
and in the early '80-s retired to St. Phik 
mena's Cathedral, Omaha, to pass his declii 
ing years. His death occurred in Novembe 
1907, within a month of the selling and m 
molition of the cathedral which was crowde 
out to make room for the rapidly extendi! 
commercial life of the city. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Phili 
Erlach (from October 9th, 1869, to Apr 
16th, 1871) who was afterwards pastor of a 
Irish colony at St. John's, Nebraska, ( n« 
Jackson) and there passed to his reward. 

Rev. William Byrne took charge and r< 
mained until September, 1873. After Bisho 
O'Gorman's death, he acted as administrate 
of the Vicariate. He died of tuberculosi 
while serving as pastor at North Platte. A 
the present time (1918) a brother Jam€ 
Byrne resides in Omaha, and two cousin: 
Mr. Patrick Fitzgerald and Mrs. Ellen Mui 
phy reside in Cheyenne. 

Rev. John McGoldrick was then appointe 
and served the parish until October 18tl 
1877. Considering the old church propert 
inadequate to the needs of the growing cor 
gregatiou, he secured two lots at the north 
east corner of 19th and Carey Avenue, as 


site for the new church. He also secured a 
plot of ten acres to be used as a Catholic 

Through the good offices of Mr. Lawrence 
Bresnahan this ground was donated by the 
:ity. Mr. Bresnahan as Mayor gave a bond 
April 28th, 1876, to the church authorities, 
pledging the transfer of the property as soon 
is the city could secure a patent from Wash- 
ington. Feeling that this plot was not suf- 
ficiently large for burial purposes Messrs. 
Lawrence Bresnahan and Tim Dyer later on 
persuaded the city through Mr. Heck Reel 
as Mayor to give another bond (September 
25, 1885) whereby it pledged to convey ten 
acres more to Rev. F. J. Nugent as trustee. 

On May 8th, 1888, the city deeded to Rt. 
Rev. Maurice F. Burke 18.32 acres for $45.80. 
Presumably the city did not get the full 20 
acres from the United States government. 
On November 23rd, 1903, Most Rev. John 
J. Keane and Rt. Rev. Henry Cosgrove, as 
administrators of the estate of Rt. Rev. 
Thomas Lenihan; transferred this property 
to the Church of St. Mary. These facts were 
secured from the records of the Court House. 
Father McGoldrick died in Cheyenne of tu- 
berculosis but was buried in Omaha. 

Rev. John Jennette next guided the des- 
tinies of the parish from December, 1877, to 
August 4th, 1878. He laid the foundation of 
the brick church on the property purchased 
by Father McGoldrick, and the second church 
like the first was dedicated under the patron- 
age of the St. John the Baptist. The families 
of the congregation at this time numbered 
from 50 to 75, and the only railroad in Chey- 
enne besides the Union Pacific was a spur 
to Boulder and Denver known as the Colo- 
rado Central. All communication with the 
country to the north was by stage. During 
lis incumbency at Cheyenne Father Jennette 
erected a church at Sidney, Nebraska, but 
was later on given charge of the newly cre- 
ated parish of St. Patrick, Omaha, which he 
served for a number of years, beloved by 
Hrery one. For the past two decades he has 
been serving as Chaplain at St. Joseph's Hos- 
pital, Omaha, and has been Dean of the 
Omaha Deanery. He passed to his reward 
August 25th, 1918. 

Rev. John Hayes succeeded Fr. Jennette as 
pastor and governed the parish up to Novem- 
ber 18th, 1882. During the first year he was 
assisted by Rev. John T. Lee. The church 
begun by his predecessor was brought to 
completion and solemnly dedicated in Mav, 
B79, by Very Rev. D. I. McDermott, G. G~., 
the Bishop at the time being present at the 
dedication of St. Patrick's Cathedral, New 
York. The other clergymen in attendance 
were Revs. Hugh Cumminsky, M. F. Cas- 
sidy, Daniel Hayes and the pastor. Father 
McDermott preached in the morning on 
Faith and in the evening on the Blessed 
Sacrament. Father Hayes died November 
18th, 1882, and was buried in Cheyenne. Dur- 
ing Fr. Hayes' pastorate a substantial brick 
parochial residence was built adjoining the 

Rev. Francis J. Nugent was in charge from 
November 25th, 1882, to June 20th, 1886. 
He started a parochial school which was 

temporarily located in the old frame church, 
and placed it under the direction of the Sis- 
ters of the Holy Child Jesus. It was shortly 
moved to the new brick building erected 
for that purpose at the rear of the church. 
He also secured the splendid school property 
adjoining the state Capitol and superintended 
the construction of the present academy. A 
man of boundless energy he founded and con- 
ducted, with the help of Mr. Joseph McGill, 
(at present lives near Cody, Wyoming) a 
weekly paper known as the Catholic Mirror, 
which however was foredoomed to failure 
owing to the smallness of the Catholic popu- 
lation. After leaving Cheyenne Father Nu- 
gent served as pastor at Rawlins for a year 
and half, but was again brought back to 
Cheyenne where he remained from January, 
1888, to March, 1891. A very successful mis- 
sion was conducted in the parish in October, 
1888, by Rev. Arnold Damen, the famous 
Jesuit Missionary. Father Nugent went from 
Cheyenne to Lincoln, Nebraska, where he 
was rector of the Cathedral. He joined the 
Benedictine monks at Birmingham, England, 
where he was professed September 8th, 1902^ 
and died in London, March 15, 1920 (he was 
born in county Tyrone, Ireland, in 1859, and 
ordained at Baltimore, Md., by Cardinal Gib- 
bons in 1882). Father Nugent was an inde- 
fatigable worker, but a poor financial man- 
ager. The Bishop on his return from a pro- 
longed sojourn m Rome, was compelled to 
borrow money to pay various debts contract- 
ed by Father Nugent. 

Rev. John T. Smith was pastor from July 
9th, 1886, to November 23rd, 1887. It was 
in this latter year that Cheyenne was created 
a diocese, and on the arrival of the first 
Bishop, Rt. Rev. Maurice F. Burke, D. D., 
Father Smith returned to his own 'diocese' 
and was stationed at Hubbard, Nebraska, for 
a short time, then at Sacred Heart Parish 
Omaha, and finally at St. Patrick's Church! 
Omaha. He cleared that parish of a large 
debt and erected a beautiful new brick church 
and died there February, 1915. At the ad- 
vent of Bishop Burke a $6000.00 addition was 
made to the parochial residence for the ac- 
commodation of the bishop. 

Rev. M. J. Carmody *vas in charge from 
May, 1891, to March, 1892. 

Rev. Edward Fitzgerald from July, 1892, 
to November, 1893. He followed the Bishop, 
on the latter's transfer to St. Joseph, and 
later was appointed Chaplain in the United 
States Army and retired with the rank of 
Major, residing in southern California until 
the outbreak of the present war when he was 
recalled to duty and is now serving at Ft. 
Douglas, Salt Lake City. 

Rev. Thomas Conway assumed charge in 
December, 1893, and remained until Novem- 
ber, 1897, leaving for Colorado after the ar- 
rival of Bishop Lenihan. He is now doing 
effective work in Grand Junction, Colorado, 
where he has built a brick church and 

Rev. P. U. Sasse was in charge from No- 
vember, 1897, to December, 1900. From 
Cheyenne he was sent to Sheridan where he 
built a brick church; then to Rawlins and is 
now pastor at Golden, Colorado. 


Rev. George J. Bryant served as pastor 
from December, 1900, to January, 1902; he 
was then sent to Casper, where he built a 
frame parochial residence. He is now as- 
sistant at St. Augustine's church, Oakland, 

Rev. Michael A. Kennedy served the parish 
from May, 1903, to December, 1903. He held 
other charges in the diocese, and died in 
1911, pastor of Rock Springs. 

Rev. James A. Duffy was in charge from 
November, 1904, to April, 1913. He was of 
invaluable assistance to Bishop Keane, dur- 
ing whose administration the new cathedral 
and Bishop's house were erected. After the 
opening of the new cathedral a mission was 
conducted by the Paulist Fathers of New 
York City. Father Duffy's splendid work 
was recognized by his ecclesiastical superiors, 
and he was appointed bishop of the newly 
erected see of Kearnev, Nebraska, Januarv, 

Bishop McGovern took personal charge 
until May 1st, 1915, when he appointed Rev. 
James A. Hartmann rector. It was during 
the latter's able administration that the small 
debt remaining on the cathedral was liquidat- 
ed, three houses and lots on 21st street join- 
ing the church property purchased, and Ca- 
thedral Hall erected as a social center for 
the people of the parish. This last mentioned 
institution, with the ground on which it 
stands, represents an outlay of $120,000.00 
and has no rival between the Mississippi 
river and the Pacific coast. Fr. Hartmann 
also improved Olivet cemetery by the addi- 
tion of beautiful and substantial gates, by 
placing the monuments in straight and par- 
allell lines, and by getting most of the lots 
under perpetual care. The beautiful Celtic 
Cross of Barre Granite in the center of the 
cemetery* erected in 1923 at an expense of 
$3000.00 was the gift of Bishop McGovern. 

A two-weeks' mission was conducted by 
Rev. P. B. Donnelly, D. D., an Oblate Father 
from London, England, from November 11th 
to 25th, and another two-weeks' mission by 
Revs. J. Cunningham and J. McGuire, both 
of the societv of Jesus, from September 24th 
to October 8th, 1922. 

The following legacies have been left to 
St. Mary's cathedral since 1908: 

From James Duffy, property valued at 
from $2000.00 to $3000.00; from William 
Moffatt $500..00; from Nora Van Dyke 
$1000.00; and from Ellen Conroy $2728.00, 
half of which, however, was voluntarily turn- 
ed over to her niece, Ellen Welch. 

Among prominent members of the parish 
may be mentioned: Messrs. John F. Crow- 
ley, John Martin, P. Jacob Gauff, Dennis 
J. O'Connell, Joseph Cahill, Charles Mc- 
Garvey, Dr. J. H. Conway, Thomas Mc- 
Inerney, Frank Bon, William Mullen, Dr. 
T. J. Henneberry, John T. Bell, William 
Dinneen, John H. Smith, John McDonald 
Joseph O'Mahoney, Walter Phelan; and 
Mesdames A. E. Roedel and Mary Schmidt. 


Sheridan County 

Organized in 1888, named for General Phi 
Sheridan, 90 miles east and west, 30 mile* 
north and south making 2700 square miles. 

Organized in May, 1888, under the count} 
organization act of territory legislature 
passed March 9, 1888. 

Sheridan County was created from th( 
northern portion of Johnson County. Apri 
12, 1888, Governor Moonlight appointed th< 
following as commissioners to organize Sher- 
idan County: Henry Baker, Dayton; Cor- 
nelius Bulware, Big Horn; and Marion C 
Harris, Sheridan. The election resulted I 
choosing the following officials: 

Sheriff — Thomas J. Keesee. 

Clerk— Frank McCoy. 

Treasurer — James P. Robinson. 

Attorney — William J. Stover. 

Commissioners — M. C. Harris. 

Commissioners — W. E. Jackson. 

Commissioners — Peter Reynolds. 

Superintendent Schools — Richard Mc- 

Assessor — Pulaski Calvert. 

Surveyor — Jack Dow. 

Coroner — Dr. Wilbur F. Green. 

Road Superintendent — James T. Glasgow 

Total vote footed up 958. 

County seat vote was as follows: Sheri- 
dan 486, Big Horn 248 and Dayton 224. 

The Commissioners appointed three quali- 
fied electors in each voting precinct to acl 
as Judges. 

Pass Creek — T. R. Dana, Samuel Church 
and Wesley Brittain. 

Ohlman — D. A. Ditz, Emanuel Achenbacb 
and John W. Bill. 

Dayton — Ed. R. Dinwiddie, Joseph D 
Thorn and Dennie G. Frisbie. 

Bingham — Wm. Garrard, George W. Abee 
J. W. Patterson. 

Tongue River — Samuel H. Early, William 
E. Wagner, J. M. Barnett. 

Sheridan — Oliver P. Hardee, Marcellers E] 
Sawin, Henry Held. 

Beckton — R. W. Moline, James R. Robin- 
son, Harry Fulmer. 

Big Horn — Richard D. Darlington, Charles 
W. Skinner, Alfonso Lambrugger. 

Banner — James Terrill, John W. Price, 
Wm. W. Hazen. 

Lower Prairie Dog — Arthur P. Dow, John 
C. Patterson, Oscar T. Smith. 

Piney — John H. Dunlay, Barnes Burris, 
Frank Sturdevant. 

Bear Creek— -J. Smith, J. J. Davis, William 
H. Hunt. . 

Notice in Post calling election April 25,, 


Seal adopted on the organization of Sheri- 
dan County Mav 9, 1888. 

Sheridan, Wyoming, May 9th, 1888, 1:30 
p. m. 

The commissioners met, there being pres.- • 
ent Henry Baker, Chairman Cornelius Bou- 
laure and M. C. Harris. 

Sheridan having received the highest num- 
ber of votes cast for the county seat is de- 
clared the county seat of Sheridan County. 


First county officers elected in Sheridan 

Sheriff, Franke Keesee; County Clerk, 
rank McCoy; Prohate Judge and County 
reasurer, James P. Rohinson; Prosecuting 
ttorney, Wm. J. Stover; county commis- 
oncrs, Marion C. Harris, Wm. E. Jackson, 
eter Reynolds. 

County Supt. of Schools — Richard Mc- 

Coroner — Wilbur T. Green. 

County Surveyor — Jack Dow. 

Assessor — Pulaski Calvert. 

Road Supervisor — James T. Glasco. 

Justice of Peace — John T. Yeakey (Tongue 
Ever District). 

Constable— W. H. Wilerson (Sheridan Dis- 




County After It Was Organized 

the spring of 1880 in company with 
Works, we left Bedford, Iowa, with a 
team bound overland for Bozeman, 
lontana. We proceeded on our journey 
ithout any mishaps and crossed Big Goose 
t the present site of the town of Sheridan 
bout the twentieth of June, was favorably 
npressed with the locality and fertility of the 
auntry, but wishing to see more we pushed 
n ana camped June 26th, on Custer's battle- 
eld on the Little Horn, just four years after 
le fight. Saw where the men fell, as there 
ad been no effort made to bury them in a 
rave but had just thrown dirt over them, 
;aving some of their feet with their boots 
n sticking out. Their lines was in the shape 

a V as they came down a ridge towards 
ne river, one line on each side coming about 
ne and a half miles from the river with 
'uster at the point. 

We arrived at the end of our destination, 
lozeman, on the 11th day of July. Here we 
tayed a couple of months and seeing noth- 
lg that suited us as well as the Goose Creek 
Country. Mr. Works took the team and in 
ompany with Judd Dunham returned to 
lat place, where he arrived the first of Octo- 
er and built a cabin on unsurveyed Govern- 
lent land, about three miles above the pres- 
nt location of Sheridan. I bought a pony 
ufit and took a trip through the Yellow- 
tone Park, returned to Bozeman and took 
he stage in October for Red Rock, Mon- 
ina, then the terminus of the U. and N. 
pilroad, spent some little time at Virginia 
Sty and intermediate points, and at Ogden 
aok the overland R. R. for home in Iowa, 
n the spring of 1881 packed up our goods 
nd started back to this country "via" St. 
>aul and Bismarck, then the terminus of the 
§ P. R. R. Here we took a small steamer 
ound for Miles City. On our way, at old 
•'ort Berthold we visited the Indian camp of 
700 of Sitting Bull's surrendered Indians. 
Be arrived at Miles City in June, 1881. On 
he opposite side of Tongue river from Miles 

ty and below Fort Keogh was "Rain in 
he Face's" band of 1600 Indians waiting 
ran-'-ortaiion to Standing Rock Agency on 
he Missouri in the Dakotas. The steamboats 
oon arrived and the landing commenced. It 
fes an impressive scene, the Indians were 

camped on the Yellowstone, which was very 
high at that time of the year, above them 
Fort Keogh, below them Tongue river and 
in their rear soldiers with cannon at com- 
manding places. For two days and nights 
while getting everything in readiness, the 
Indians and more especially the squaws kept 
up their dismal howlings on taking their 
farewell to their beloved homes and hunting 
grounds. On the morning of the third day 
they were forced, at the point of the bayonet 
and the cannon, on board of the several 
steamers, and were soon wending their way 
down the stream. Thus departed Sitting 
Bull, Rain in the Face, their brave warriors, 
squaws and papooses, with all their glory, 
to take up the degrading life to them, of an 
agency Indian. Their country, once theirs, 
was now open for settlement by the whites. 
I remained in Miles City, that summer and 
winter, when the N. P. R. R. was completed 
to that place. On the first day of March, 
1882, in company with Hon. John McCormick 
(leaving my family in Miles City) we started 
with teams for the Gcose Creek country, 
arriving there about the 20th of March, hav- 
ing camped out the bigger part of the way. 
Sackett & Skinner had settled on, and built 
a small store on the new 7 present site of Big 
Horn. Hon. George T. Beck had located 
and was living on a ranch on Big Goose, now 
called Beckton, Richard McGrath was keep- 
ing stage station on Wolf Creek. R. F. Mock 
kept the post office called Bingham on 
Tongue River and John Rhodes, (J. M. 
Work's son-in-law) was keeping the Mondell 
post office at the Big Goose crossing. I 
found my old friend J. M. Works comfort- 
ably situated on a ranch three miles above 
the crossing. I took up a claim (which we 
now own) two miles farther up. This was 
in March, 1882, the land had been surveyed 
during my absence in the fall of 1881. Mr. 
Rhodes wishing to leave for a more prom- 
ising country. I bought his outfit and took 
charge of the post-office about April the 10th. 
I walked about ten miles to be sworn in and 
walked back the same day and on this walk 
I conceived the idea that at the crossing and 
at the junction of the two streams, was a 
natural location for a small town or trading 
post. And forthwith I invited what few set- 
tlers I could find, J. Walter Scott, M. L. 
Sawin, J. G. Hunter, Ken M. Burkitt, Alex 
Gould, who met at my place on the first of 
May, talked the matter over and agreed it 
was worth attempting. We met again in a 
few days, organized a company of which 
I was elected President, J. Walter Scott Sec. 
and Ken M. Burkitt Treas. We talked over 
the prospect of building up a town and came 
to the conclusion that forty acres was more 
than enough for years to come. As Presi- 
dent I advanced three dollars, the registering 
fee, sent to Cheyenne, presented it as town- 
site and had it withdrawn as such, from the 
market, and on May the 10th, 1882, with 
Jack Dow for surveyor we commenced to 
stake out the town. At a subsequent meet- 
ing we named our staked out town Sheridan, 
and in order to raise funds to pay expenses, 
we required every one who took a lot to pay 
the sum of $2.50 for the first and fifty cents 


for each additional lot. Besides the building 
which I occupied, (which was built by George 
Mondel) at the crossing, was a small log 
house used for a dwelling, and quite a large 
log building used for a stable, both buildings 
were said to have been built by horse thieves 
and used for their purpose. 

The mails were carried through this part 
of the country on buckboards, and when the 
streams were high they could not cross, but 
would stretch a rope across and pull the mail 
over on it, and sometimes passengers when 
they would visit it the drivers would then 
turn round and go back to the next stream 
or station. Big Goose, being one of the un- 
crossable streams, the driver quite often had 
to wait here and sometimes stay all night. 
There was at this time a big six footer by 
the name of Foster driving on this run, who 
was stopping with me one night, when at 
about dusk five big buck Indians came march- 
ing in, asked for something to eat,. (I was 
just getting supper ( and stay all night. As 
it was raining I did not like to turn them 
out, and did not like the looks of them either, 
they were big ugly looking fellows and well 
armed. I knew they were not Crows, they 
seemed sullen and would not talk much, Fos- 
ter said they were Cheyennes and were out 
on mischief and for me not to let them stay, 
as they would certainly rob and maybe mur- 
der both of us. I thought I could better 
control them inside than out, at least I did 
not want to let them know I was afraid of 
them; I told them yes, and went on cooking 
supper, paying no more attention to them 
until supper was ready. I then filled full 
tinplates for four of them, then set supper on 
the table for Foster and I then addressing 
the one I took for leader, told him, Foster 
my friend. You my friend, sit down and eat 
with him, he looked at me and then at the 
others. I said again, you my friend, and mo- 
tioned to him to sit up in my place, at that 
the others said "How" then he said "How" 
and took the seat, then I knew all was right. 
And when we came to go to bed, they spread 
their blankets on the floor (ground floor), 
they gave me their guns and belts to keep 
until morning, and to show them that I 
trusted them, I stood their guns up at their 
heads when they said "How" again. Foster 
took his blankets and crawled through a hole 
we had for a window and took for the brush, 
saving that he was not going to trust his 
scalp in the hands of no treacherous Indians. 
I laid down and slept as soundly as ever 
knowing that an Indian never went back on 
friendship. Next morning at daylight all 
were up and they seemed pleased to find 
everything as we had left them. I gave them 
their breakfast, some tobacco, bacon and 
Hour and started them on their way with a 
hearty "How." Foster didn't show up until 
after they were gone, seemed surprised to 
find everything all right, said he did not have 
very pleasant time of it, laid awake all night 
expecting every moment to see the shack 
afire. On the next morning one lone Indian 
came riding up, said "How" and then pro- 
ceeded to stretch and nail upon one end of 
the cabin, two freshly caught beaver hides 
witli the remark "you keep," then I recog- 

nized one of my friends of the day before 
and with a "How" he was off. Henry Helc 
built and operated a blacksmith shop, the 
first permanent building on the townsite, R 
Cornwell built the first residence, and his 
family was the first to live in the town, the 
next building was a saloon. This was aboi| 
the first of July. I sent for my family abotlj 
that time, cost me $150.00 to bring them frorj 
Miles City a distance of 150 miles, were fif- 
teen days making the trip, no bridges at thai 
time and had to ford streams quite often 
which at times were dangerous, I had at this 
time increased my stock of goods. Hon 
Robert Foote of Buffalo, kindly and mater 
ially aided me, for such unselfish deeds tc 
the early settlers, he is entitled to the gratii 
tude of the country. And among my firs 
customers, after I received my first load a 
goods, was "White Horse" and his band o 
about one hundred Indians, squaws and pa 
pooses, of the Crow tribe. They campeo 
on the opposite side of the creek for abou| 
three days. The first day was spent wit! 
them in looking over things, pricing, etc. 
towards evening a small band of bucks carai 
marching in, headed by an ugly and ill-tem 
pered looking fellow, who demanded "Whis 
key." I told him I did not keep it, he di< 
not seem satisfied but proceeded to hunt fo 
it, he come around behind the counter, 
stepped before him, and asked him agaiij 
what he wanted, he said "Whiskey." I tol< 
him again I did not keep it, at that he carai 
close up to me and said in my face "vol 

I grabbed him by the shoulders, turned hin 
around and pushed and kicked him out of tb 
door, the others stood looking on, grinninj 
and grunting their approval, and followed hin 
out and hissed him back to camp, after tha, 
I had no more trouble. The}' cleaned m> 
out of sugar, bacon, flour, red and blue calici 
and went their way rejoicing, and I cleanei, 
them out of buffalo robes, beaver hides am. 
what silver dollars they had and ever afte] 
we were good friends. During the summej 
and fall several families moved in and tool, 
up claims in the near vicinity. That fall war 
general election, we had ^ voting precinc, 
established and as 1 was one of the Judge 
we used my kitchen for a voting place. A 
this election, I saw for the first time womqi 
at the polls voting, and let it be said to th 
credit of the "Wild and Wooley West," cow 
boys, hunters, trappers and ranchers, wh 
were assembled there, that I never saw 
more orderly, or well conducted election i: 
my life, when the ladies came up to vot 
(there were seven of them), loud talkiiv 
ceased, the crowd opened ranks, hats off an 
woe to any one who would have dared t 
utter an oath or slurring remark in thei 
presence. We polled somewhere near on 
hundred votes. At this election party line 
were not drawn, each one voting for, as w j 
thought, the best man for the place. Duriri 
this fall we made application to be represent 
ed in the Big Horn school district, whic| 
was done". The man that had taken th 
claim that the little log house was on cor 
eluded that he did not want it, so he move 
it over for us a kitchen, and in this we ha 


first school of fifteen scholars. Miss 
ira Works (now Mrs. Moehler of Buffalo) 
s our first teacher, wages $75.00 per month, 
bad made application and was appointed 
itary Puhlic, was then the only officer who 
lid administer oaths, take acknowledge- 
nts, etc., within a large scope of country, 
inter set in early and cold, snow was deep, 
.1 I saw the thermometer go down to 46 
o\v zero the first of February. A great 
ny cattle died that winter for several cat- 
companies had located in the numerous 
;leys, and had brought in vast herds, 
long these were the Grinnell Live Stock 
mpany, Hardin & Campbell, Patrick 
others, Conrad and Company, Ferguson 
others, Cross & Dunnick and a few others. 

winter set in early spring opened early 
). Crops were put in and a big harvest 
urned, settlers came in thick and fast and 

the first of December, 1883, nearly every 

in town was occupied by some one with 
|ry conceivable kind of a lodging place. 
I. H. Conrad & Company had built a large 
ire in the spring and had filled it with a 
>ck of general merchandise. I had also 
ilt quite a large building (now occupied 

the First National Bank) and filled it with 
ods. The school district had built a $1,- 
).UU school house and other buildings such 

hotels, livery barns, saloons, blacksmith 
:>ps and dwelling houses showed the pros- 
rity of the town. We had built a bridge 
-oss Big Goose and settlers still continued 

come, ditches were being taken out of the 
feral streams and the soil responded boun- 
Lilly to the industry of the pioneer settler, 
le first marriage took place in Sheridan 
s summer, the bride was a Miss Cole, and 
rather funny or to them serious mishap 

break occurred right here, as I was a 
tary public the groom (being ignorant of 
i duties of that officer) took for granted 
it I could perform the marriage ceremony 

well as to administer oaths, etc., supper 
is ready and everything else including the 
ide. When the groom came over to in- 

m me that my presence was needed in an 
icial capacity to solemnize the marriage 
es but I (Oh how I hated to do it) had 

inform him that the law did not permit 
\ to perform that pleasing ceremony, and 
it he would have to look elsewhere, with 
le western grit he saddled up a bronc, 
irted out on a 12 mile trip to the home of 
der Benton above Big Horn, arrived back 

2 a. m., found the bride and supper still 
liting and was soon joined in the bonds 

matrimony by the Flder in true orthodox 
,-le. In the fall and winter of 1883 we 
aught ourselves of enough importance to 
rorporate. So R. M. Cotton, an attorney 
)m Colorado, who had opened up an office 

Sheridan and myself drew up the neces- 
ry bill which passed the Legislature in Jan., 
k We held our first election on the 2nd 
lesday in March, when the following offi- 
rs were elected. Mayor, J. D. Loucks, 

ustees. M. C. Harris. Robert J. Mills and 
ios. M. Cotton. Thus we became an in- 
rporated town in the midst of a prosperous 
mmunity. To show the peaceable char- 
ter and disposition of the early settlers I 

will mention this incident. In the fall of '84 
we elected George Brundage, Justice of the 
Peace and during the two years he served 
he had but one case before him which took 
place in this primitive style, the constable 
arrested a man for some offense and started 
with him for the home of Mr. Brundage, 
which was then too high to cross, so stand- 
ing on the bank with the prisoner, he yelled 
over to Mr. Brundage, who was working in 
sight. He came to the bank and wanted to 
know what was wanted, the constable told 
him who he had, the nature of the crime, 
etc., the justice then asked the prisoner if the 
charge was true, to which he answered yes. 
"Men the verdict of this court is that you 
pay in the hands of the constable five dollars, 
and when it is paid you are at liberty," the 
prisoner paid the fine, started up the creek, 
the constable back to town and the Justice 
to his work. 

During all this time there had not been 
a single sermon of any kind preached here, 
although a Sunday school had been success- 
fully carried on. In the spring of '84 there 
got off the stage one morning quite a young 
man by the name of Probert right from 
Wales, England, who said that he had been 
sent to Sheridan by the Congregational Mis- 
sion Society, and on the following Sunday 
he preached the first sermon in Sheridan. 
He stayed one year and was then transferred 
to Africa. Rev. Jennings took his place and 
remained two years. In the summer of '87 
Rev. Rader, superintendent of Wyoming of 
the M. E. Church arrived and organized the 
Methodist Church. Rev. Vosselter the first 
M. E. minister. Then came Rev. T. T. Howd 
and organized the Baptist Church. The firsT 
newspaper, "The Sheridan Post," put out its 
first edition in May, 1887, J. D. Loucks and 
Thomas M. Cotton publishers. Thos. M. 
Cotton editor. In the fall T. T. Tynan & 
Fay Sommers launched forth the Enterprise. 

At the election in the fall of 1886 the Re- 
publicans put forth their first party ticket 
with J. D. Loucks at the head for Council- 
man, who was elected as was the bigger part 
of the ticket. During the year of '87 we of 
the northern part of Johnson County, not 
liking the treatment we were receiving at 
the hands of the southern part concluded we 
would be better off if we had a county of 
our own. With this feeling and wish of the 
northern part, in conjunction with Mr. Guern- 
sey of Lusk we introduced in the Council 
of the Legislature of 1888 a bill creating 
four new counties. I was chairman of the 
committee on Counties in the Council, took 
the bill up promptly and had it passed 11 to 
1. But in the house it met opposition and 
was amended to three counties. A confer- 
ence committee was then appointed and the 
council agreed to the amendment, but before 
it was completed in the house, some one stole 
the bill in the evening of the last day of the 
session, and as there was only one more bill 
to pass, the appropriation bill, it looked as 
if that was the end of the three new counties. 
Nothing daunted, we called our forces to- 
gether, engaged four good clerks, and while 
the house was putting the finishing touches 
to the appropriation bill, we drew up another 


County Bill. I had anticipated some trouble 
of some kind, so had the engrossing clerk 
to make me a copy of our part of the bill, 
the part pertaining to Sheridan County, some 
few days previous, so I could be prepared for 
any emergency and could tack it on some 
other bill, and in order to gain time, when 
the appropriation bill was brought in the 
council. I moved that it be sent back for 
(some imaginary) correction, and it was so 
done and as it was nearing the hour of mid- 
night I, the President, asked to have the Ser- 
geant at Arms to stop the clock which was 
done at 11:45, we then voted to have lunch 
and by 1 A. M. the clerks had the county 
bill prepared, was then called to order, the 
appropriation bill was then read the first 
time, referred to proper committee, reported 
favorable, read the second time before the 
committee of the whole, when I moved to 
amend by annexing the county bill which 
was done and passed the council at about 4 
a. m., then sent to the house for concurrence, 
passed and sent to Governor Moonlight by 

5 a. m. when he vetoed the whole thing, and 
the funny part of it was, he dated his veto 
the day before, as he had been up all night 
signing bills and sending to the council for 
concurrence, appointment to office, he had 
forgotten another day had commenced. When 
Johnson County brought suit to enjoin Sheri- 
dan County from organizing on the account 
of the illegality of the act as they claimed 
it was passed the day after the date fixed by 
law for the legislature to have adjourned this 
was the important factor in our favor. 

The bill was returned to the council by 

6 a. m., passed over the veto by both houses, 
sent to the secretary of the Territory and 
returned to the council with his certificate 
of filing by 8 a. m. when we adjourned sine 
die. Hon. J. A. Riner President of the coun- 
cil. I immediately wired to Sheridan via 
Fort McKinney the results when they im- 
mediately started for Cheyenne the necessary 
petition, which the Governor refused to rec- 
ognize, because he said the bill said a peti- 
tion and this was in two sections. 

So the work had to be done over again 
which was accomplished in a few days, and 
upon this petition the Governor appointed 
the required commissioners to organize the 
new county of Sheridan. Said Commission- 
ers M. C. Harris of Sheridan. W. E. Jackson 
of Big Horn, Henry Baker of Dayton, who 
called an election, and some time in May, 
1888, the county was fully organized bj r elect- 
ing the regular officers and swearing them 
in office. 

Sheridan was chosen County Seat, and thus 
out of difficulty the northern star of Wyo- 
ming arose and blazed forth never to set, 
and may its light never be dimmed by in- 
famy or dishonesty. 


Rawlins, Wyominj 

May 21st, '91 
Col. Coutant, 

Dear Sir: — 

Mr. Tom Sun tells me that in 1880 Williai 
Daley and others selected a route from Rav 
lins to Lander. They were accompanied * 
guards by some soldiers, one of whom wai 
dered away from camp on what is now Lo. 1 
Soldier Creek and losing himself wandere 
east to Tom Sun's ranch. The latch stria 
was out but the soldier removed two pane 
of glass and unbuttoned the hinged sash, ej 
tering the cabin in this way found victual 
to satisfy his hunger and a place to sleei 
From this came the name Lost Soldier. Tor 
Sun says a man who has not sense enoug 
to go into a man's home by the door when 
was left open would get lost anywhere, 
see Jim Baker died last Tuesday, the 17tl 
81 years old. This makes Washakie 84 year 
old. Best regards and best wishes frol 



Dr. Grace R. Hebard has brought ou 
eight counties of her Place Names Series 
The}' have been published in the newspaper 
of the counties she writes about. She is alsi 
working on her Biography of "Sacajawea." 

"The Bullwhacker," by Win. F. Hookei 
is just from the press. Turning the pages a 
random the eye catches the familiar name 
"Tim Dyer's Tin Restaurant," Cheyenm 
Trail, Fort Fetterman, La Bonte Creek 
John Hunton, Charley Clay. Ben Nash — 
but why go on — the book is replete witl 
Frontier History. The Wyoming State His 
torical Department has purchased one copy 

"Uinta County, Its Place in History," i: 
the title chosen by Elizabeth Arnold Stom 
for her history which is now on the press. 

Mrs. Stone has traveled extensively al 
supplemented her college training with til 
years in Europe. She was a member of th< 
first faculty of the University of Wyoming 
where she taught French and German. Shi 
has inherited literary talent, has published « 
small volume of verse, and is a frequent con- 
tributor to newspapers and periodicals. She 
was born in Ohio, but has lived in Wyominj 
most of her life, and in the county of which 
she writes since the year 1875. In scope her 
book covers the natural wonders and beau- 
ties of the region, early discoveries and his- 
tory, and the development of this importaia 
original county into the divisions of Tetoa 
Sublette, Lincoln and Uinta Counties, as well 
as the Yellowstone National Park. The book 
will be well illustrated and will carry maps. 
It will be of such value as source material 
that it should be in every library in the state. 
It will be on the market the middle of No- 
vember. Published by The Laramie Print- 
ing Company. Price, regular cloth bound 
copies, $3.5(i. Special Autograph Edition 
bound in pantasote and limited to 200 num- 
bered volumes, $5.00. 



July 1, 1924— October 1, 1924 

All accessions are gifts, unless otherwise stated 


uford, Miss Picture of "Calamity Jane." 

askell, P. L Powder horn. 

Buckshot mold. 

Caps of muzzle loading gun. 

allagher, Mr Two pictures of "Hell's Half Acre." 

Fragments from bottom of "Hell's Half Acre." 

Btts, Mr. A. E Old gun. 

Stage coach whip (Black Hills route). 

Mounted eagle. 

A. T. Douglas, spurs. 

ebard, Dr. G. R Campaign 1899 Statehood badge. 

Statehood celebration badge. 
Frontier badge. 

ickey Mr. Samuel Sash and medallion for Grand Marshall Staff, McKinley, 


turgis, Mr. Wm Six maps. 

G. B. Goodell chaps, 1873. 
Muzzle loading fowling piece. 
Powder horn. 
Shot pouch. 
Civil war rifle. 
Haversack, 1863. 
Model hay rick, Sturgis. 

Badge, Governor Warren's Inauguration 1899. 
Card to Inaugural Ball, April 9, 1889. 
asper Chamber of Commerce Picture of "Unthank" grave (1850) on Oregon Trdil. 
ifsTS'rown and Bill Hooker.. Piece of post planted by the Gordon party December, 1874. 

Isey, Mrs. Henrietta Piece of head-light from ship sunk at Battle of Manila. 

Historical Library 
Original Manuscripts — 
m. Thomas Maghee. 
[r. Fin Burnett. 
[r. Ed. Farlow. 
[rs. Jennie Boland. 
Ir. T. J. Bryant, 
[ajor A. B. Ostrander. 
t. Rev. Patrick McGovern. 
[r. T. S. Garrett. 
[rs. Leisberg. 
[rs. Charles E. Ellis. 

Ir. Chester Baldwin Lander records. 

V. C. B. Stafford "Unthank" correspondence. 

rs. J. C. Coble Copies of manuscripts, letters and five copies "Tom Horn" 

heyenne Chamber of Com- 
merce Letter. 

rs. Nannie Steele Original legal document. 

r. Wm. Sturgis Original legal documents. 

24 newspapers. 

Cheyenne Club Year Book, Vol. 1, Nos. 6 and 9. 
' A collection of pamphlets, receipts, etc., total 190. 

Bss Burrill- Manual of General Court of Massachusetts. State House, 


dwin M. Smith..: Bound newspaper. "The Cottontail," edited and published 

bv Edwin M. Smith (12 years old). 

illette Woman's Club Year Book for 1924-25. 

urchased by the Wyoming 

Historical Department Two copies "Seventy i'ears on the Frontier," by Majors 

(Paper). One copy "The Bullwhacker," by William 
F. Hooker. 
Newspaper clippings and magazine arti:les containing Wyoming history have been 
mtributed by Mrs. J. C. Coble, Mrs. A. H. Beach, Mr. R. S. Ellison, Mr. Burke Sinclair, 
r. C. B. Stafford, Mr. Greenburg and Colonel Stokes. 

War History 
rs. H. B. Henderson Historical Records of World War Soldiers, Series of month- 
ly bulletins issued by Department of A. L. A., collec- 
tion of newspaper clippings, correspondence, annual 
reports and programs by counties, 
rs. J. C. VanDyke Letter. 








Vol. 2 

Cheyenne, January 15, 1925 

No. 3 


The history of the settlement of Wyo- 
ming begins with those venturesome ex- 
plorers who were in search of furs to supply 
the urgent demand in European capitals. 
While they seldom settled permanently in 
one place, they nevertheless paved the way 
for the march of civilization that followed 
in their wake. As fur-bearing animals de- 
creased in numbers it became ever more 
important that new sources of fur supply 
be discovered. In the search for new trap- 
ping fields first came Sieur de la Verendrye 
ind his three sons, assisted by Pierre Gau- 
thier de Varennes, pushing out from the 
head waters of the Missouri in search of a 
gateway through the mountains. (1) 

Perhaps it was fortunate that De la Ver- 
aadrye failed in his object and returned 
lome after eleven years without discovering 
i way across the mountains. Before France 
jpuld make another attempt the Seven Years 
War with England left the trading posts in 
the hands of the English, who left exploring 
altogether to the fur companies. Following 
:he American Revolution the posts became 
possessions of the United States and in 1804 
the government sent out Lewis and Clark 
to explore the country to the Northwest, 
including that which lay in the new Louisi- 
ana Purchase from France. (2) 

Lewis and Clark encountered trappers of 
the Missouri Fur Company from the south 
ind of the Hudson Bay Company from the 
north but at no time did the expedition 
travel over any of the country now occupied 
}y Wyoming though they came within fifty- 
Six miles of the northwest corner of the state 
ind heard of the wonders of the Yellowstone 
Park. They opened a new country and 
jlazed a path for western progress and it is 
due to this step in the march of civilization 
that we find in Wyoming a lake named for 
Lewis and a town and stream named for 
Clark. From this time on there is more or 
less authentic information as to the settlers 
ind traders of Wyoming. There are many 
unsubstantiated reports of the expeditions 
made into the state across the southern bor- 
der by early Spaniards but there are no 
written records of these explorers. Probably 
the country was visited by daring adven- 
turers before the time of Lewis and Clark 
but history has not yet proved how they 
came nor when they left. (3) 

There is a record of a body of twenty 
trappers under the leadership of Ezekial Wil- 
liams who came into the region now known 
as Wyoming but they accomplished nothing 
of importance in producing furs because they 

(Copy rig 

were not used to fighting their way through 
a hostile country. They encountered some 
friendly Crow Indians who treated them so 
royally that one of their number, an Edward 
Rose, decided to remain with the tribe. He 
afterwards became a chief and is known in 
history as the first American to take up a 
permanent residence in the Big Horn coun- 
try and as near as can be determined was 
the first permanent American resident in 
Wyoming. (4) 

Among the early trail breakers in this un- 
traveled country were Wilson Price Hunt 
and Robert Stuart. In 1810, Hunt, as a 
member of Astor's Pacific Fur Company 
started westward on his way to the Pacific 
coast intending to develop a fur trade in the 
Rocky mountain country. Because of Indian 
hostility he had to go far to the south of 
the Lewis and Clark road and in so doing 
established the first trail across the state. 
This trail, though not the easy road across 
the mountains, opened the way for the great 
American fur trade. The soldier followed 
and stilled the country to the point where 
permanent settlement took place. (5) 

The following year, a return party under 
Robert Stuart started to St. Louis from Fort 
Astor, Oregon. Upon reaching the western 
boundary of Wyoming a well beaten Indian 
path was found leading to the southeast. The 
trail was not difficult to follow and the party 
headed toward the rift in the mountains later 
known as South Pass. The exact place of 
crossing the mountains is not known but they 
went as far south as the trail which soon 
became famous as the Oregon Trail. They 
reached the mouth of Poison Spider creek 
where it empties into the North Platte some- 
what southwest of the present city of Casper. 
Here an early snow storm overtook them 
and they went into winter camp. They in- 
tended to stay until spring and built a warm 
log cabin, the first building to be erected in 
Wyoming by known white men. They were 
soon discovered by Indians and fearing an 
attack they moved on down the Platte and 
reached St. Louis in the spring of 1813. (6) 

It should be remembered that Stuart led 
his men through a wilderness during the most 
severe season of the year. His was the first 
party of Americans to traverse the valley of 
the Sweetwater and some authors think it a 
great oversight that the stream does not bear 
the name of Stuart. The wanderings and 
explorations of these men are closely asso- 
ciated with the settlement of Wyoming. The 
first explorers of the North Platte had opened 
a way which led to the settling of Oregon 
and California and eventually to the scttle- 
ht 192S) 



Published by the Wyoming State Historical 

State Historical Board 

Governor — Mrs. William B. Ross. 
Secretary of State — F. E. Lucas 
State Librarian— Flo La Chapelle 

State Historian — Mrs. Cyrus Beard 
Secretary of the Board 

Advisory Board 
Rt. Rev. P. A. McGovern, Cheyenne 
Dr. Grace R. Hebard, Laramie 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, Cora 
Mrs. Willis M. Spear, Sheridan 
Mr. R. D. Hawley, Douglas 
Miss Margery Ross, Cody 
Mrs. E. T. Raymond, Newcastle 
Mr. E. H. Fourt, Lander 


The Fur Traders Owen 

St. Peter's Church (Sheridan) Bell 

Notes - - ..Surveyor General 

Ames Monument - Coutant 

Wm. Trufant Coutant 

James Talbot Coutant 

The Natural Fort Coutant 

Letters - Coutant 

Told at the Camp Fire Ordway 

Necrology - Historian 

Accessions Historian 

ment of Wyoming though the latter did not 
take place on a very large scale till nearly 
a century later. (7) 

After the trail through the mountains had 
made new trapping fields available men be- 
came interested in gathering furs. St. Louis 
as the frontier town on the border of civiliza- 
tion became the chief outfitting post of the 
fur trade. Men with small capital as well 
as large organizations like Astor's made ex- 
cursions into the new west and pursued the 
perilous task of fur trapping. (8) 

The most important of these fur trading 
expeditions that concerns this state was the 
one made by Wm. Ashley of St. Louis, who 
saw an opportunity to enter the fur business 
while the Missouri Fur Co. under Manuel 
Lisa and the Hudson Bay Co. were compet- 
ing against each other. Ashley's plan was 
to make friends with the Indians and employ 
them to trap in his service. In 1822, he 
started with a small company of men for the 
mountains. He established a post on the 
Yellowstone as a base for operations and cov- 
ered the country far to the southward in a 
region not yet touched by the great fur com- 
panies. Following up the Big Horn as far 
as the Wind River Valley, he trapped on the 

Big and Little Wind rivers, Big Popo Agie, 
Little Popo Agie, North Fork and Beaver 
creek. He returned to St. Louis for the win- 
ter and came back the next spring with a 
much larger force. (9) 

Ashley found the business so profitable in 
the Sweetwater country that he sent back 
for men to join him. Meanwhile he reached 
the Spanish river, the name of which he 
changed to Green river in honor of one of 
his St. Louis partners. Along the Green 
river they found beavers so tame that they 
could shoot them with a rifle. On one of 
the tributaries they saw many horses grazing 
in the meadows and for this reason named 
the stream Horse creek. (10) 

Among other members of Ashley's organ- 
ization were Andrew Henry, Jediah S. Smith, 
Wm. Sublette, Milton Sublette, David E. 
Jackson, Robert Campbell, James Bridger, 
Etienne Provost, Fitzpatrick and many men 
whose names became famous in the history 
of the west. One of these men led a party 
through a rift in the mountains later known 
as South Pass. Although easy of passage, 
its ascent and descent being so gradual as to 
be hardly perceptible, the significance of this 
gateway on a road to the west was one of 
vital importance because it unlocked the 
mountains that had been an arresting barrier 
until that time. From South Pass the little 
band journeyed down the Big Sandy to its 
junction with the Green river, a site that was 
soon to become famous as the Green river 
rendezvous. (11) 

General Ashley completely revolutionized 
the methods of trapping. Before his time the 
trappers had journeyed in canoes and the 
trapping fields lay along streams that could 
carry furs by boat to St. Louis. Ashley had 
to mount his men on horseback and he se- 
lected only good riders and expert rifle shots. 
"These trappers soon became as expert in 
horsemanship as the redman, and being bet- 
ter armed, could outfight the Indian, yet in 
spite of the advantage the Indian found 
means to wage a war almost to extermina- 
tion on the trappers. The savage learned 
to know the routes as well as the resorts 
of the white man on horseback and they 
made war by waylaying them on their jour- 
ney. They hovered about their camps and 
made life with them a perpetual warfare. This, 
in time resulted in greatly decimating the 
ranks of the trappers." It is thought that 
three-fifths of the trappers in Wyoming were 
killed by Indians, and the most of them were 
cut off while examining their traps. Yet the 
fascination of the mountain life kept the 
ranks recruited until the streams were de- 
pleted of fur bearing animals. (12) 

In 1826, Ashley sold out his interests in 
the fur business to Captain Sublette who was 
head of an organization soon to become 
known as the Rocky Mountain Fur Co. Un- 
der this new organization the fur business 
continued to grow by leaps and bounds and 
the following year four hundred trappers had 
entered Wyoming to gather furs. Their sup- 
plies were hauled in by wagon and distribut- 
ed at the rendezvous which took place every 
summer. These wagons were drawn by 
mules and the load for each vehicle was 1,800 


pounds. These were the first wagons brought 
into Wyoming and they followed the North 
Platte and the Sweetwater but did not cross 
the continental divide. The Indians looked 
upon this wagon train as quite beyond their 
comprehension and feared they would even- 
tually be forced to vacate. The Blackfeet, 
Sioux and Cheyennes became less friendly 
and Sublette was forced to unite for protec- 
tion with the American Fur Co. whose activi- 
ties had brought them into the field. These 
two companies were united only for their 
ow n safety and the}'' competed against each 
other for furs. ( 13) 

The Rockv Mountain fur trappers obtained 
$175,000 worth of furs in one year, 1832. A 
large part of them was taken from the coun- 
try now known as Wyoming but the fur 
business was on the decline. It was now- 
realized that the immense fortunes of the 
business were a thing of the past. The Rocky 
Mountain Fur Co. sold out to their old rivals 
and the trapping henceforth was carried on 
by the American Fur Co. and a few free 
trappers. (14) 

To the trappers belong the credit of hav- 
ing first made homes in Wyoming. Many 
of the men who came out with Ashley, Sub- 
lette and later under Bonneville conceived the 
ifrtafof making the mountains their abiding 
place. These pioneers first broke the way 
through a wilderness where everything was 
against them. They traveled desolate moun- 
tains and barren prairies that showed no 
signs of habitation except that of the savages. 
They beheld ranges of mountains in front of 
them but knew nothing of their defiles or 
how to cross them. Those who settled down 
to make homes in the wilderness far from 
civilization were the brave and adventurous 
ones. Many of them took Indian wives 
which protected them from that particular 
tribe to which their wives belonged. For 
the must part they lived honorably with their 
native women. The surroundings prohibited 
any chance of education but education was 
not the common thing even in the states. (15) 

Following in the tracks of the fur traders 
came other persons into the west. Captain 
Bonneville had long been fascinated by the 
work of fur trapping and decided to visit the 
new regions with the double purpose of gath- 
ering furs and of mapping the country 
through which he went. On May 1, 1832, 
he started from Fort Osage on the Missouri 
and led a band of 110 experienced hunters 
and trappers into the region now known as 
Wyoming. Because the fur business was on 
the wane and because the American Fur Co. 
was too powerful and experienced an organ- 
ization to compete with, he did not make any 
money from furs. He gained much informa- 
tion, augmenting our store of geographical 
knowledge that in the end helped to push 
settlement further westward. The data he 
collected is considered fairly accurate for the 
means employed in those days; his maps 
were the first to give even the roughest ap- 
j proximation of the principal geographical 
| features of this region. (16) 

Bonneville proved that a wagon train could 
reach to the crest of the Rockies and started 
a procession of settlement wagons into the 

west. The fort he built in Wyoming, Fort 
Nonsense, was not a permanent settlement 
but it proved a guide beacon for other ad- 
venturers, some of whom tarried by the way 
and became the markers of the Oregon 
Trail. (17) 

In 1843, John Fremont, a man whose past 
training particularly adapted him for the job 
of exploring the west, set out westward to 
prepare maps for the government. Five 
times he made a journey into the new coun- 
try and came back with much needed infor- 
mation. He possessed the genius of an ex- 
plorer and gave to the world a comprehensive 
knowledge of things as they were at that 
time. By means of his written reports, 
which were published by the government, 
the masses of the people were greatly inter- 
ested by the messages, the cloud of mystery 
which had covered mountain and plain of 
Wyoming was cleared away and the locality 
was given its proper place on the map of the 
west. As a direct result of these printed 
pamphlets which the government distributed, 
many immigrants sought homes near and be- 
yond the Rockies. Into the hands of Brig- 
ham Young came this information which was 
largely responsible for his consequent selec- 
tion of Utah for a home for his adherents. 
These followers soon spread back into west- 
ern Wyoming and a settlement was begun 
in the neighborhood of Fort Bridger. (18) 

Ashley had made a fortune on the head- 
waters of the Platte river and those streams 
just beyond. The American Fur Co. then 
drew the attention of eastern adventurers 
who started westward. Bonneville, following 
along the Platte with his creeking wagons, 
helped to cut a deeper print in the road that 
the sands could not soon efface. The numer- 
ous passages including those made by the 
missionaries and by Fremont, plainly marked 
a highway between east and west. When 
Santa Anna prohibited commercial relations 
with our country and the Mexican govern- 
ment became very hostile, the Santa Fe road 
could no longer serve its purpose. The north- 
ern trail became a necessity. By the middle 
of the century so many people had travelled 
the trail that the Indians called it "The Great 
Medicine Road of the Whites." Because it 
was the most direct way to Oregon the road 
is usually called the Oregon Trail. (19) 

Since the trail was a long one and tra- 
versed a barren country for great distances 
it was essential that posts be established at 
certain intervals along the way as had been 
recommended by Whitman, the missionary, 
and by Fremont, the soldier. Already there 
had grown up an old fur trading post at Fort 
Laramie and this old fort eventually became 
the most famous fort in the history of Wyo- 
ming settlement. Long before the white men 
had attempted colonization in this locality the 
whole section was a grand hunting ground 
for several tribes of Indians. In the year, 
1834, two men, Wm, Sublette and Robert 
Campbell, trapping in that locality, found it 
necessary to build some kind of protection 
against roaming bands of vagabond Indians 
that stole everything in sight along the Platte 
river. They therefore erected in that year 
upon the site of Fort Laramie a square stock- 


ade, fifteen feet high with a number of small 
houses inside for themselves and employees. 
In 1835 these two men sold out to Milton 
Sublette, James Bridger and three other trap- 
pers who a short time afterwards went into 
partnership with the American Fur Co. (20) 

The American Fur Co., in 1832, in order to 
extend their business and make it as profit- 
aide as possible decided to organize the In- 
dians to work for furs and chose the fort for 
a central post. They accordingly sent Kep- 
lin and Sabille to Bear Butte and the Black 
Hills of Dakota to persuade the Sioux In- 
dians to come over and hunt their game and 
live in the vicinity of the fort. The am- 
bassadors returned with one hundred lodges 
of the Ogallala Sioux under the Chief, Bull 
Bear. This was the first appearance of the 
Sioux nation in that portion of the country. 
These Indians were well impressed with the 
hunting ground and sent back for more of 
their tribe. After becoming established near 
Fort Laramie they expanded northwest into 
that fertile hunting ground in northern Wyo- 
ming and into the Big Horn Basin. They 
soon overran the country and drove away 
the Cheyennes, Pawnees and Crows and later 
were the most hostile Indians with whom the 
soldiers had to deal. (2D 

The people who lived inside the fort called 
it Fort John but the name was never popular. 
The original fort began to rot in 1836 and 
the American Fur Co. reconstructed it at a 
cost of ten thousand dollars. The descrip- 
tions of the old fort are based on the recon- 
structed buildings made by the Fur Co. In 
many ways it was similar to the old English 
medieval castles, being built for defense as 
well as for a store house. It was a quad- 
rangular structure of large, heavy, sundried 
bricks or adobes built after the fashion of 
the Mexicans. The walls, about fifteen feet 
high, were surmounted by a wooden palisade 
forming portions of outer walls of houses 
which faced and entriely surrounded a yard 
one hundred and fifty feet square. The doors 
and windows of each apartment opened on 
the inside. Directly opposite each other and 
midway of the wall were two entrances, one 
of which was a large public entrance; the 
other a smaller and more private one, a sort 
of postern gate. Over the great entrance 
was a square tower with loop holes built of 
adobe. At two corners directly opposite each 
other were built large square bastions so 
arranged that riflemen inside could cover the 
four walls of the enclosure. (2) 

In 1849 the American Fur Co. sold this 
old fort to the government for $5,000. After 
this there was a garrison continually at the 
fort for the Indian danger was drawing ever 
nearer and the government wished to protect 
the emigrants along the Oregon Trail. Soon 
a large number of additions were made to 
the buildings of the post. One was a two 
story structure known as "Bedlam," con- 
structed in the early days for officers' quar- 
ters. It cost the government the very neat 
sum of $60,000. Every stick of timber in it 
was hauled by wagon from Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, a distance of eight hundred 
miles. (23) 

The second permanent settlement made in 

Wyoming was at Fort Bridger where a fur 
trading post had been established by James 
Bridger in 1842. Colonel Brackett writes of 
this old fort as follows: "Here the old moun- 
taineer lived in a sort of barbaric pomp, sur- 
rounded by the dusky children of the moun- 
tains, owning considerable flocks and herds, 
and being in fact a frontier baron. Here he 
lived until long after the advent of the Mor- 
mons and in 1854 sold his Mexican grant of 
thirty miles of land including cabins to them 
for $8,000. The deeds of this property are 
now in the possession of the dignitaries at 
Salt Lake City." The Mormons then made 
improvements to the sum of another $8,000 
and made it the county seat of Green River 
Utah of which it was then a part. When 
Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston arrived in 
1857 to invade Salt Lake Valley the Mormons 
destroyed the fort as they retreated before 
him. In 1858 the fort was rebuilt, this time 
made of logs and neatly whitewashed. It was 
near Fort Bridger that Uncle Jack Robinson 
resided; it was he who rendered such assist- 
ance to the emigrants on the way to Califor- 
nia, helping them to repair their worn equip- 
ment. He was a personal friend of Bridget" 
and is known in Wyoming history as the 
oldest settler in the territory, having lived 
there since 1832. (24) 

The history of Fort Laramie and Fort 
Bridger deals with the first permanent colon- 
ization in the country now known as Wyo- 
ming. Stuart had built a cabin for protec- 
tion from the winter, years before, but had 
immediately passed on. Many fur traders 
spent a large part of their lives in the coun- 
try and a few took up their permanent abode 
with the Indians but these two forts were 
land-marks on the old Oregon Trail and play 
an important part in the development of the 
west for they remained as guarding posts fori 
the emigrants along the road, the only means 
of armed protection within many miles. (25) 

It may be wondered why Wyoming so long 
remained a wilderness while the road of emi- 
gration led directly through the region. The 
few who idled along the way did not greatly 
add to the population. It will be noticed 
that the easy way across the mountains was 
the most desolate part of the west but had! 
nature made the region a little further north 
easy of access, Wyoming would have proved 
worthy of attention long before it did. (26) 

The Indian liked the country north of the; 
Oregon Trail and for it was willing to sacri- 
fice anything. The discovery of gold in Mon- 
tana was the cause of a big movement in that 
direction and by 1865 the population had 
reached 120,000. This large number of peo- 
ple had to be furnished with supplies from 
outside the territory and the Bozeman Trail 
marked the quickest way to get there. But 
the magnitude of the caravans crossing Wyo- 
ming enraged the Indians to hostile activity, 
for penetration of their land meant destruc- 
tion of the wild game and control by the 
whites. (27) 

Without getting the Indians' consent to 
cross the territory, the United States govern- 
ment proceeded to establish three forts along! 
the Bozeman road. While Fort Reno was 
being enlarged. Red Cloud gave notice that 


any one would be killed who went further 
north, as building of forts in the Powder 
River country was in violation of an agree- 
ment existing between the government and 
the Indians. However, the army went on 
and built an unusually line post, Fort Phil 
Kearney, on the Piney, northwest of Buf- 
falo, in Johnson county. From the time of 
the first survey of the land, the fortification 
was in a constant state of siege, the Indians 
looking upon the structure as a sign of usur- 
pation. The Fetterman massacre followed 
and the government awoke to the fact that 
the army was fighting a brave and desperate 
enemy, formidable beyond numbers, who was 
trying to outdo by cunning all the advantages 
the white man possessed by intelligence and 
better arms. (28) 

The treaty of Fort Laramie followed 
wherein the United States government agreed 
to withdraw from the three forts along the 
Bozeman road and set apart the great Sioux 
reservation of 22,000,000 acres. The govern- 
ment agreed that the country north of the 
North Platte and east of the summits of the 
Big Horns should be unceeded territory and 
that no white person should be allowed to 
settle without the consent of the Indians. (29) 

The Indians were the main cause of the 
tartly development of that part of Wyoming 
lying north of the North Platte river. For 
years after the Fetterman massacre the emi- 
grants sought a more safe route to Montana, 
though it was a much longer road. After 
the summer of 1868 there was no travel over 
the Bozeman trail between the Platte and 
the Big Horn river until Crook's expedition 
in 1876, except by one or two small mining 
expeditions going to and from the Black 
Hills in Montana. From 1868 to 1876, no 
traffic was carried on north of the Platte. 
By the treaty no white man was allowed to 
enter the territory north of the river. (30) 

Neither the Indians nor the white men rig- 
idly enforced the terms of the treaty. The 
red man instead of sticking to the reserva- 
tion meandered at will to the south, stealing 
the white man's cattle and milch cows. By 
1874 seekers of gold and a home pushed out 
into the forbidden country and started that 
larger movement which resulted in Custer's 
last battle. (31) 

Thus we see certain forces at work which 
led to the beginning of settlement in Wyo- 
ming. After the map-makers had advertised 
the country, the Oregon trail brought the 
emigrants who mostly passed on through the 
state but it also brought the army forts 
which became the first permanent settle- 
ments. The first settlement was at -the east- 
ern end of the territory and the second one 
at the opposite end with practically none in 
between. Dry farming was not then de- 
veloped to the point where crops could be 
raised on fifteen inches of rainfall and irriga- 
tion had not developed extensively. The 
country around the Bozeman road was adapt- 
ed to settlement but the Indian's hold on the 
region could not be broken and Wyoming 
had to wait several decades before the vast 
resources could be brought to the attention 
of the public. (32) 



( 1 ) Coutant, History of Wyoming, Vol. 
I, pages 35 and 36. 

(2) Ibid., page 40. See also Bancroft, 
History of Wyoming, page 678. 

(3) G. A. Dorsey, An Aboriginal Quartz- 
ite Quarry in Eastern Wyoming. Anthro- 
pological series, Publication 51, Vol. II, No. 
4, page 237. 

(4) Coutant, History of Wyoming, Vol. 
I, pages 70-72. 

(5) Hebard, Marking the Oregon Trail; 
page 6; a pamphlet in Archives. Hebard, 
History of Wyoming, page 36. 

6) Ibid., page 7; Oregon Trail. 

(7) Coutant, History of Wyoming, Vol. 
I, page 118. 

(8) Ibid., page 119. 

(9) Col. A. G. Brackett, First Settle- 
ments; found in Wyoming Historical Col- 
lections of 1897, page 65. 

(10) Coutant, Historv of Wyoming, Vol. 
I, page 123-124. 

(11) A. G. Brackett, First Settlements; 
found in Wvoming Historical Collections of 
1897, page 66. 

(12) Coutant, History of Wyoming, Vol. 
I, page 128. 

(13) Ibid., page 130-132. See also A. G. 
Brackett, First Settlements; found in Wvo- 
ming Historical Collections of 1897, page 26. 

(14) Ibid., page 147. 

(15) Ibid., page 188. See also Irving, 
Bonneville, page 34. 

(16) A. C. Veatch, Coal and Oil; found 
in U. S. Geol. Survey, Professional paper 
No. 56, page 9; a booklet. See also Coutant, 
Vol. I, page 153. 

(17) Brackett, First Settlements; found 
in Historical Collections of 1897, page 67. 
See also Hebard, Oregon Trail, page 23; 

(18) Hebard. Marking the Oregon Trail, 
page 5; a pamphlet issued by the D. A. R. 
See also Hebard and Brininstool, The Boze- 
man Trail, Vol. I, page 43, 44. 

(19) Hebard and Brininstool, The Boze- 
man Trail, Vol. I, page 33. 

(20) W. H. Powell, Fort Laramie; found 
in Wyoming Historical Collections of 1897, 
page 176. 

(21) Ibid., page 177. 

{22) A. G. Brackett, Fort Laramie; found 
in Wyoming Historical Collections of 1897, 
page 67. 

(23) W H. Powell, Fort Laramie; found 
in Wyoming Historical Collections of 1897, 
page 177. 

(24) Brackett, First Settlements; found 
in Wyo. Hist. Coll. of 1897, page 68. 

(25) Ibid., page 68. 69. 

(26) Parrish, The Great Plains, page 299. 

(27) Hebard and Brinistool, The Boze- 
man Trail, Vol. I, page 220. See also Bart- 
lett, History of Wyoming, Vol. I, page 282. 

(28) Hebard, Marking the Bozeman 
Trail, pages 39 and 40; a pamphlet in ar- 
chives, Wyoming Material, Vol. III. 

(29) Doane Robinson, History of the 
Sioux Indians; found in Dept. of Hist., Coll. 
of South Dakota, Vol. II, pages 386 and 387. 

(30) John Huntoom a letter dated Aug. 


5, 1920; in Hebard and Brininstool, The 
Bozeman Trail, Vol. II, page 258. 

(31) Thayer, Governor's Message to 
Fourth Legislative Assembly, 1875, page 22. 

(32) Hebard, Marking the Bozeman Trail, 
page 39. Brackett, First Settlements; found 
in Wvo. Hist., Coll. of 1897, page 72. 

Rev. A. W. Bell, Rector 

The first service of the Episcopal Church 
was held in Sheridan by the Rev. John E. 
Sulger, then archdeacon of Wyoming and 
Idaho, on April 22nd, 1891. After several 
visits of the Right Rev. Ethelbert Talbot, 
D. D., Bishop of Wyoming and Idaho, and 
Archdeacon Sulger, lots were bought on 
Loucks street and the present building began. 
The money was collected by Rev. John Sul- 
ger with the following gentlemen as an ad- 
visory committee who helped him in every 
way. Messrs. Horace Alger, M. A. Upton, 
and George L. Smith. The foundation stone 
was laid by Bishop Talbot in 1894, before the 
building was completed the Rev. Arnold Lut- 
ton was appointed by the Bishop as mis- 
sionary in charge. He remained till 1896 
when he was succeeded by Rev. Thos. H. 
Johnston. At the beginning of 1898 the Gen- 
eral convention of the Episcopal Church, al- 
tered the boundaries of the jurisdiction by 
creating a new diocese which included half 
the diocese of Wyoming and the whole of the 
diocese of the Platte (extending from Sher- 
idan, Wyoming, to Kearney, Nebraska) and 
placing all under the administration of the 
former Bishop of the Platte, the Right Rev. 
Anson. R. Graves, D. D., naming this new 
jurisdiction, the Diocese of Laramie. Bishop 
Talbot was transferred to the east and made 
Bishop of Central Pennsylvania, under whom 
eventually the Rev. Mr. Johnston got ap- 
pointment. The Church remained vacant for 
some time, when at the end of April, 1899, 
the Rev. A. W. Bell was appointed by Bishop 
Graves as priest-in-charge. The church had 
been closed for some time, a heavy debt rest- 
ed on the building, interest in church affairs 
was at a low ebb and a somewhat discourag- 
ing outlook confronted him, but by dint of 
perseverance and the noble help of the wo- 
men of the Ladies Guild, seconded by the 
Bishop as well as the men of the Church and 
others the debt has been totally wiped out, 
almost enough has been raised to entirely 
pay for the present part of the neat Rectory 
which has been built. A Rector's study has 
been built on to the church and paid for. 
The children of the Sunday school made a 
handsome offering at Easter to entirely pay 
for the coat of paint which has lately en- 
hanced the beauty of the church building. 
The whole of the valuable property has been 
surrounded by a neat fence and when the 
remainder of the Rectory is built it will be 
one of the best in the city. 

The spiritual life of the church has been 
growing side by side with the material. The 
Sunday School has trebled its numbers. Many 
members have been added to the church by 

On November 12th, 1901, the Rector pre- 

sented to the Bishop for confirmation a class 
of 1 1 adult candidates, men and women of 
high intelligence and respectability. Easter, 
1902, Rev. Mr. Bell completes his third year 
as Rector of this comparatively new and 
growing parish and on that day the small, 
remaining debt on the Rectory will be wiped 
out. Thus leaving the entire property free 
from all incumbrance. 


The following records are furnished from 
the manuscripts of the Surveyor General's 
office by the courtesy of Clyde W. Atherly, 
Surveyor General: 

Surveyor General's Office, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
September 29th, 1870. 
Major General C. C. Augur, 
Commanding Department, Platte, 

Omaha, Nebraska. 

I have the honor to state that I have con- 
tracted with N. P. Cook, Department Sur- 
veyor to run a Standard Line from the West- 
ern face of the Medicine Bow Mountains, 
West to the Western boundary of Wyoming 
Territory, near to Evanston. The line com- 
mences 12 or 15 miles south of Elk Moun- 
tain and will cross the Platte and the moun- 
tains south of Rawlins and continue south 
of the railroad until it reaches Carter on 
Bridger Station. 

It is an important line and will serve as 
a base for my surveyors along the Union 
Pacific Railroad and I wish to finish it this 

Mr. Cook is unwilling to enter the field 
without military protection — at least as far as 
Green River fearing the strolling bands of 
Arapahoes which are said to infest the moun- 
tains along this line, he prefers infantry and 
about 20 men, if it be practicable I hope it 
will meet with approbation to furnish this 
escort from either Fort Sanders or Fort 

I am sir. 

Your Obedient Servant, 
Survevor General. 

Forts 1870 

There are seven of these in this Territory:* 
Fort Russell, Laramie, Fetterman, Sanders, 
Steele, Bridger and Brown, the last being 
located near the Sweetwater Mines, for the 
better protection of that valuable mining dis- 

Fort Laramie was founded by Mr. Robert 
Campbell (now Indian Commissioner) and 
Mr. Sublette, both of St. Louis, and who 
were among the most enterprising fur-traders 
of early days. 


The Utes on our southern border and the 
Shoshones (or Snakes) on our western bor- 
der are supposed to be friendly and receive 
yearly presents. The Snakes are supposed 
to be rightful occupants of the Wind River 
Valley, but they are about as unsafe there 
as the miners would be; roving bands of 


Cheyennes and Arapahoes drive them off and 
were the ones who committed the massacre 
near the mines early this summer. These 
Indians are more warlike and troublesome 
than the Sioux but it is hoped the present 
policy of the Government may restrain them 
better than heretofore. 

Red Cloud and his bands claim all North- 
east Wyoming — north of the Platte and east 
of the Big Horn Rivers. Red Cloud him- 
self is believed to desire peace, but some of 
his young braves are not easily restrained 
and pant for war. The presents handed over 
to Red Cloud at this time by Messrs. Camp- 
bell and Brunot have pleased them (except 
in receiving ammunition) and may keep them 
quiet until next spring. 

If they obtain a better reservation (say 
near the Black Hills of Cheyenne River) and 
are allowed traders in whom they have con- 
fidence they may possibly be reformed into 
peaceable Indians. But the treachery of wild 
Indians is almost past finding out and the 
pioneers put about same trust in them that 
thev do in rattlesnakes. 


September 3rd, 1870. 

The Department of Immigration has 
bfought some of these to Wyoming and they 
appear to thrive as well as if indigenous. 
They have done their part in opening the 
great American thoroughfare to their native 
country, and will aid in building many more 
railroads in the Rocky Mountain regions. 
The Union Pacific Railroad has placed them 
along the western divisions to keep up track 
repairs and they do the work well. 

More will follow in time and relieve other 
men, who are needed in the mines and where- 
ever else brain has claim over muscle. This 
element will continue to come as the demand 
requires. It does so in accordance with the 
same laws that govern trade, finances and 
commerce and should not be recklessly re- 
strained. The western part of the continent 
cannot do without them, or at least will do 
better with them. 

Game. Wild Animals 

The buffalos are rapidly disappearing in 
this territory what remain are principally to 
be found in the northern part, along the Pow- 
der, Tongue, Big Horn and Yellowstone 

The anxiety that Red Cloud and his people 
manifested lately at Fort Laramie for am- 
munition to kill small game they explained 
by affirming that buffalos are becoming quite 
scarce in their hunting grounds. Dr. Hay- 
dens party found and killed some along the 
Sweetwater this summer but they were not 
plenty there. 

Elk are quite numerous in the northern 
part of the Territory but not as plentiful in 
the southern part. It is more particularly in 
the vicinity of the railroad that scarcity of 
game is becoming apparent, which is of 
course to be expected. In the remoter parts 
of the Territory it is apt to remain plentiful 
for many years. In the timber portion of 
the mountains bears abound to a consider- 
able extent. 

Antelopes are abundant; the plains in some 
places seem alive with them and they are 
frequently seen from the cars in passing 
along. Hunters kill them in great numbers, 
supplying our markets with a very cheap and 
most delicious meat. 

Wolves are not as plenty as would be ex- 
pected and do not annoy the shepherds to 
any great extent. 

Beaver and other fur-animals arc quite 
plentiful in and about the streams that come 
down from the mountains, and considerable 
trapping is carried on with good profit to the 

You make inquiry in reference to tea and 
silk culture. These have not been tried here 
but it is probable that the higher altitude 
would lie unfavorable for them. 

Experiments will be made next season with 
the maple, elm, etc., shade trees, also with 
grapes, currants and raspberries, blackberries, 
etc. Apples can be raised in well protected 
localities, though frosts are sometimes heavy 
in August as severe as in October and No- 

Surveyor General's Office, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
October 4th, 1870. 
Captain Coats, 
Fort Sanders, 
Wyoming Territory. 

Mr. Cook informs me that you have re- 
ported to him a reduction of the Ft. Sanders 
reservation. General Augur promised me 
plat of the late survey but I have received 
none. Can you furnish me a copy of the 
one lately made? Also please inform me 
what reduction has been made in the reserva- 
tion and at what point it is made. 
Very respectfully, 
Your Obedient Servant, 
Surveyor General of Wvo. Territory. 

General Description: 

The initial point for the survey of the 
northern boundary of Wyoming Territory 
is the Northwest corner of Wyoming as es- 
tablished by A. V. Richard, U. S. Surveyor 
and Astronomer in the year 1873. The spot 
is reasonably well perpetuated from materials 
found immediately surrounding the point. It 
is in dense fir timber on the northern slope 
of a mountain but very near its summit. The 
post and its witness correspond with the 
description furnished. The boundary line be- 
gins in a high mountain region, a portion 
of the real Rocky Mountains and continues 
in these mountains during the entire distance 
surveyed this season, on by over sixty miles. 
With the first 10 miles of the line the sur- 
veys are almost entirely covered with dense 
fir, pine and cedar timber of rather small 
size: though in small areas the trees grow 
to be seventy or eighty feet high and three 
feet in diameter. On the banks of the streams 
one finds willows and poplar; but no cotton- 
wood. Between the 9th and 14th mile the 
line crosses the approaches to and Electric 
Peak. It crosses this mountain about one- 
eight of a mile south of its extreme highest 


point and in the latitude and longitude corre- 
sponds tolerably close with those repre- 
sented by Dr. Hayden's survey. Between 
these mile stations (the 9th and 14th) great 
difficulty was experienced in prolonging the 
tangent. It is impossible to carry a transit 
clear to the divide on the tangent. Having 
placed the head flagman on the line east of 
us and on the narrow edge of the summit 
of the divide we all went around the moun- 
tains and then got (in line) on the east side 
of Reese's Creek, as nearly as we could by 
using the magnetic needle and sighting back 
West to the flagman. As soon afterwards 
as practicable latitude observations were 
made and our exact location was determined. 
This was near the 17th mile Station. Elec- 
tric Peak was so named on account of the 
great amount of minerals on and surround- 
ing it. In crossing this barrier our hardships 
were peculiarly severe. On the evening of 
September 6th, after quitting work on the 
line our party started down the mountain to 
find camp. We divided into five smaller 
companies. The camp was not found until 
noon of the next day, all hands having lain 
out without shelter or food, since morning 
of the 6th. I walked fully 20 miles in trying 
to find the pack train, and I think others 
traveled as far. We had no guide and the 
country was strange to all of us. On the 
8th we got on the tangent, on mountains as 
above noted. Reese's Creek heads on the 
east side of Electric Peak, soon found it im- 
possible to chain on the tangent over at the 
range just west of Gardiners River. We 
traversed around it, getting "into line" by 
latitude determinations near the Mammoth 
Hot Springs. From the 9th to the 17th 
mile stations the country consists of a series 
of rocky points and ridges, the entire way. 
The valley of Gardiner's River is about two 
miles wide on the west side of the river, 
but the mountains come clear to the water 
on the east side. The walls are nearly per- 
pendicular and are some 2000 feet high. Af- 
ter getting on top by a triangulation, the line 
crosses a table land surface of which is some- 
what less rugged, but still more uneven than 
a broken or rolling prairie. It is the divide 
between the Gardiner's and the Yellowstone 
rivers. About the beginning of the 24th mile 
the line strikes a steep bluff on the south 
side of the Yellowstone river, descending at 
the 24th mile corner following near the river 
on its southwest side. The descending to the 
Yellowstone was an old Indian trail very 
stony, steep, dim and dangerous. The cross- 
ing causes some solicitude on account of the 
huge boulders scattered over the bed of the 
river. Altho made with safety by us at this 
season of the year (September) the crossing 
in high water must be exceedingly perilous 
if it can be crossed at all. The lines keeps 
in the valley of the Yellowstone for three 
or four miles and then begins to gradually 
work away from it getting towards the north 
and climbing ridge after ridge and cliff after 
cliff of the most rugged and difficult breaks 
or foot-hills of the mountains, which are still 
higher further north. By the time the trail 
on Soda Butte Creek, near the smelter was 
reached the rocky perpendicular and stony 

sided peaks becomes so numerous and close 
together on the lines it was found impossi- 
ble to chain further any continuous long dis- 
tance (one mile or even one-half mile) on 
the line. A series of triangles was made 
from where connecting with each other close*| 
to where we abandoned the survey. The 
mile and witness monuments were established 
wherever we determine our exact distance onp 
the parallel and could reach it with tools.. 
Most of the worst peaks have been crossed 
and from now (60th line) eastward the line 
maybe chained most of the way. Although 
the last five miles were measured by triangu- 
lation almost entirely several corners were 
established on the parallel. These triangles 
are given in detail in the foregoine notes; 
and a diagram showing their continuous con^i 
nections also accompanies these notes. The 
whole of this distance on the boundary line 
(60 miles) is for a great elevation, averaging 
probably 8000 feet above the sea. It is about 
10,000 feet near the beginning and quitting 
points. It never descended below 6000 feet; 
and the bed of Gardiner's and Yellowstone 
river and 6100 feet and 6750 feet respectfully, 
while the summits of Electric and Inded 
Peaks are 11 to 12,000 feet above sea leveLj 
Clarks Fork Mines are about 9500 and the 
Mamouth Hot Springs between 7 to 80J0|, 
feet above the level of the sea. The whole 
distances with the exception of about five 
mile in crossing the comparatively level di- 
vide between Gardiner's and Yellowstone, 
river, is continuously in the roughest kind oft 
a mountain region. It had been predicted 
by men who had visited at Yellowstone Park 
and the Clarks Fork Mines that we could! 
not survey this line by chaining and could 
not establish the line corners. Several of 
Dr. Hayden's assistants had so expressed, 
themselves to me. It will be observed how- 
ever, that 46 out of 60 mile stations have 
been located including the witness corners! 
(set as near the true place improvements 
near it; and the Clarks Fork Mines and the 
surrounding improvements. Volumes have 
already been written describing the Yellow- 
stone Natural Park and many surveys and 
reports of its wonder have been published. 
I shall note only a few recent changes. Block 
House stronglv and carefully built during the' 
summer (1879) by Colonel P. W. Norris, thJ 
Superintendent of the Yellowstone Park usecS 
as the headquarters for the Superintendent: 
and employees. It stands on a hill about! 
one-fourth of a mile northeast of the greati 
Hot Basin, in a commanding position and isjj 
in strength, fineness and design, one of the 
best block houses I ever saw. It is two 
stories high, contains six large rooms, cupola 
and flagstaff. It is about 50 feet by 30 feet^ 
in external measurements and probably 30 
feet high. A good wagon road has been 
built to the upper geyser basin about 60 miles- 
south of the house and to Bozeman, Mon-j 
tana, about 70 miles north of the house. 
Numerous excellent trails also lead from the | 
house in various directions. A man named 
McCartney keeps a hotel on the reservation 
near the house supplys. He sells bad whisky, 
encourages gambling and charges exorbitant 
prices. He has no permission nor authority 


to live on the reservation and should be put 
off although it would require physical force 
to do it. The wagon roads are good and 
were much used by tourists last summer. 
I described these buildings because they are 
within one and one-half miles of the boun- 
dary. There are about a dozen cabins built 
and occupied along the Yellowstone river be- 
tween the boundary line and 40 miles below. 
The nearest one is about five miles north 
of the line or one mile below the mouth of 
the Gardiners river. Then comes Reese's 
ranch, a store and a ferry at that point. 
About 30 miles from the boundary on the 
route to Bozeman is Boeltler's ranch, the 
best one on the river. A toll gate is sta- 
tioned about 15 miles north of the boundary 
on the road to Bozeman. 

The mineral locality is known as the 
"Clarks Fork Mines" and is at the head of 
the "Clarks Fork" of the Yellowstone river 
about one-half mile north of the boundary 
opposite the 56th to 57th miles. These mines 
were discovered in 1870 and were worked 
only with a view of obtaining title until in 
1877, a smelter was built by a Bozeman Com- 
pany. After taking out a large quantity of 
ore, the smelter was worked only one season. 
Then it was found that it did not pay to 
tTeTg+it the ore 500 miles to the railroad and 
the mines are now worked only to preserve 
rights under the mining laws. "The Great 
Republic" was the first mine discovered. He 
owns a fractional interest; and still expects 
to realize handsomely from his mine when 
they get a railroad. Silver, Galena and Gold 
and their products. A large boarding house 
and some one-half dozen cabins have been 
built at the mines but all were abandoned 
when we were there. It is dreadfully cold 
in winter, and no one has ever tried to re- 
main the year round. The entire distances 
surveyed are watered by numerous mountain 
rivulets, springs, rivers and lakes. It is ex- 
ceptionally well provided with clear cold 
mountain streams. Many of the streams and 
lakes abound in fine trout. Those caught 
in Slough Creek and Soda Butte Creek and 
Lake Abundance were also delicious and 
man}- of them weighed four or five pounds. 
Our party averaging in number 16 men; and 
the company of cavalry and escort averaging 
50 men. We were kept constantly supplied 
with fish and game from the time we left 
until we returned to Ft. Washakie, nearly 
three months. Elk, deer, antelope and rab- 
bits were as num-erous over the entire region 
as dogs in an Indian camp. There were 
hunters with us who were especially skilled; 
one man in particular never going out and 
returning without game, as far as I ever 
heard. We saw but one buffalo while en- 
gaged in work on the survey but on our 
march home we saw hundreds and killed a 
few; seven in one afternoon. The personnel 
af the surveying companies have been re- 
organized, soon after finishing the Colorado- 
Utah boundary line, also carefully selected. 
It was made up mainly from the mountain- 
eers; who were adapted to the life and work 
and the surveying was cheerfully and well 
done. It had been several years since I have 
been associated in the field with as efficient. 

faithful and agreeable a company of assistants 
as this one proved to be; and" we were all 
sorry when the work had to be abandoned, 
so early in the season. The formation on 
Gardiners and Yellowstone rivers and west 
of there is of limestone east of the moun- 
tains across the divide between Yellowstone 
rivers and Clarks Fork which is of quartz 
and basalt. There is no prairie of any con- 
sequence on this march of the boundary the 
mile or two east of Gardiners river, and the 
five miles east of it being about the only 
stretches of open country worth mentioning. 
The soil was rocky and unfit for cultiva- 
tion except in the narrow boundary of Gardi- 
ner's and Yellowstone rivers and possibly on 
the rolling divide between the two rivers 
and there it should have been irrigated. We 
had an abundance of good water and whole- 
some food. The weather was perfect de- 
lightful most of the time. It snowed hard 
for an hour or two on September 10th; then 
cleared off and it did not snow again until 
in October 6th, when we had a severe storm 
referred to in the preceding field notes. This 
long continued snow storm drove us from 
our work. We started home on the 9th of 
October and arrived at Fort Washakie on 
the 23rd, two weeks afterwards. The mili- 
tary company lost several of their animals 
from exhaustion but we saved ours. Since 
returning to Washington I heard that two 
of my own had died. I append a list of 
locations and distances furnished me by Mr. 
A. D. Wilson, before starting away last year. 
He was chief topographer in Dr. Hayden's 
survey and is now under Mr. Clarence King 
in United States Geological and General Sur- 
vey. These locations were determined from 
a series of triangulations made in 1878 by 
Mr. Wilson. It may be observed our loca- 
tions correspond close in latitude but not 
longitude, I can not account for the apparent 
difference as our line was carefully meas- 
ured and his locations are usually accurate. 
There are also other mines in Bear and 
Crevice gulches; some are placer gold. Al- 
tho the last 36 miles of our survey was the 
establishment of part of the southern boun- 
dary of the Crow Indian Reservation we saw 
no Indians, nor did we see any at any time 
while making this survey. They were on 
the east side of the mountains on their reser- 
vation and we may expect to see many of 
them in continuing the line eastward next 
summer (1880). In going to and returning 
from the field of operations we met a few 
but not many Indians. 

Quartermaster, General Office, 
Washington, D. C, Nov. 16, 1866. 
Hon. Edwin M. Staunton, 
Secretary of War. 

I have the honor to submit herewith a 
plan of the proposed military reservation. 
Ft. John Buford on the main fork of Big 
Laramie River, Dakota Territory, and also 
a general map of the adjacent country. The 
following description of the boundary line of 
the proposed reservation has been furnished 
by Bt. Brig. Gen'l L. C. Eaton, first quarter- 


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tisement of the patent medicine had been 
written across the face of the monument, 
this would be the same as if it were there 
in reality, so he did not employ the services 
of the sign writer, but boldly made the as- 
sertion to a sympathizing world. The news- 
papers of the country denounced in severe 
terms the so-called outrage and thus the 
patent medicine got the full benefit of the 

Later a justice of the peace at Laramie 
named Murphy, learned that the monument 
by mistake had been located on government 
land and not on a railroad quarter; so he 
hastened to the United States Land Office 
at Cheyenne and entered the land as a home- 
stead. Returning home he wrote to the 
Union Pacific Company that he would be 
greatly obliged to them if they would take 
the pile of stone off of his farm. The humor 
of the thing will be apparent when it is noted 
that the whole landscape thereabout is cov- 
ered with large holders and being high up 
on the mountain top there is not a drop of 
water to moisten the thirsty stones, but the 
railroad officials saw in spite of Murphy's 
grim humor a most serious state of affairs. 
An investigation of matters was at once made 
and the monument found to be on the land 
Murphy had entered. 

But pardon a little digression while we get 
acquainted with Murphy nad his family. That 
man Murphy was in his way a real character 
and like most of the Celtic race he was fond 
of office. At the time of which I write he 
had after an exciting election contest been 
chosen to fill the office of Justice of the 
Peace. His friends had congratulated him 
and the friends of Mrs. Murphy had not 
been sparing of good words on her husband's 
account. Her female associates were kind 
enough to say that it was no nice to have 
such a smart man for a husband and this 
went on until the fond and happy wife felt 
considerably puffed up. 

The treasures of the Murphy household 
were three children, two girls and a boy. 
It is related that the children looked on in 
wonder when they heard the father and 
mother showered with congratulations and 
the oldest girl one day made the interesting 
inquiry: "Mother are we all Justices of 
Peace?" To which the mother instantly re- 
plied, "No, dearie, only me and your pa." 

The railroad attorney from Omaha visited 
Laramie and consulted with his local asso- 
ciates there in regard to the very serious dif- 
ficulties in which the judge had placed the 
company. The monument had cost $80,000 
and as it could not be moved title must in 
some way be secured to the ground upon 
which it stood. Judge Murphy was not easy 
to approach, as he had been persuaded that 
there was a fortune within his grasp. Final- 
ly the two lawyers called upon him and after 
due exchange of courtesies the matter in hand 
was mentioned. Murphy would not listen 
to any argument that would go to prove that 
his farm was not a valuable one. He did 
not refuse to sell it however, but mentioned 
a price which was way up into the thousands. 
The lawyers saw that there was no use to 
continue the negotiations on that line, so 

they called his attention to what they de- 
clared was the serious aspect of the case. 
They assured him that for a judge to enter 
into a conspiracy and take advantage of his 
neighbor was a very grave offence, and 
while they were his friends, and wanted to 
help him out of the scrape into which he had 
gotien himself through listening to bad ad- 
vice, they informed him that he could be im- 
peached and that meant that he would not 
only be deprived of his office but would be 
fined no inconsiderable amount, and more 
than this impeachment carried with it a sen- 
tence from the court which would forever 
prevent him from holding office or even vot- 
ing. Murphy was horrified at this view of 
"he case. Visions of impeachment, his fall 
from greatness, and social wreck of his fam- 
Ay all stared him in the face. 

Great drops of sweat rolled down the ju- 
dicial brow; he tried to think but the very 
effort made his head swim. Finally one of 
the lawyers came to his relief and soothed 
his troubled mind by proposing to give him 
several city lots which he was assured had 
a prospective value of several hundreds of 
dollars, if he would release to the United 
States his farm on Sherman Hill. Murphy 
was glad to fix it up that way and the law- 
yers at once drew up the papers and laid 
script on the land and thus it became the 
property of the Union Pacific. 

— From the Coutant Notes. 

FEBRUARY 1, 1886. ROOM 27. 

Born, January 9th, 1839, at Bath, Maine, 
on the Kennebeck river. Lived in Bath un- 
til fourteen (14) years of age. Then went to 
sea, on Merchant Ship "Sarah Boyd," fa- 
ther's name Gilbert C. Trufant, mothers 
name Sarah Boyd after whom the ship in 
which I sailed was named. First voyage 
from New York, 1853 to Panama. In 1856 
sailed around the world in the ship "Rock 
Light" a merchant ship. On this ship was 
chief officer. In December 1862 left the mer- 
chant service went to New York by ordel 
of the Navy Department, was here examined 
ior the service and in 1863 was admitted to 
the naval service as acting ensign. Remained 
in the service until September 19th, 1865. 
Was wounded in the service by the explosion 
of a torpedo at Wilmington, N. C. February 
20th, 1865 about 10 p. m. Was out as a vol- 
unteer to pick up torpedoes to save the fleet' 
from destruction. When wounded was un- 
conscious for more than a week. Five naval 
surveyors consulting gave me up to die, but 
I said "I shall not die I am going to live."! 
When sent to the guard ship after being 
wounded the surgeon said, "What in H — 1 
did they send this man here for, for me to 
make out a certificate of death for him?" 

Was honorably discharged from the ser- 
vice September 19th, 1865 with the thanks 
of the dpeartment. After being discharged 
from the service stayed at home m Bath, 
Maine, for eighteen (18) months Then went 
to California around Cape Hie ox-traiiturned 
across the Isthmus of ffansportation. In 


1869 started from Bath for the visit. In 
1869 was employed by Union Pacific Rail- 
road. On July 1st, 1870 went to Cheyenne 
to take charge of the baggage Department 
of the Union Pacific Railroad for that town, 
where I remained until 1881. 

On the 28th of April 1881, was appointed 
Superintendent of the New Union Depot at 
Denver, which office I now hold. 

Was enrolling clerk of the House of Wyo- 
ming Legislature in 1878 also, chief enrolling 
and engrossing clerk of the 7th Legislative 
Assembly for 1880. 

r In 1877 was High Priest of Wyoming 
Chapter Number 1, of Masons. Was depu- 
tized the same year by the Grand Chapter 
of the United States, through the General 
Grand High Priest of the same, to institute 
two other Chapters in the Territory. One 
of these Chapters instituted was Evanston, 
Chapter Number 2, instituted October 10th, 
1877 with Hon. F. M. Foot as High Priest.' 
The next chapter instituted was Lebanon 
Chapter No 3 at Laramie City, October 12th 
1877, with Hon. S. S. Mills as High Priest.' 
I was the first Knight Templar initiated in 
Wyoming Territory. Was afterwards Emi- 
nent Commander of the K. T. for two terms 
and in 1880 as Eminent Commander took 
rlYe^Vyoming Commandery to Chicago in a 
body to attend the Grand Encampment of 
the Knights Templars of the United States. 
From this fact, Wyoming holds the honor 
of being the first Territory ever represented 
as a body in that memorable Encampment. 
In 1870 Cheyenne was connected by rail to 
Denver by the D. P. R. R. and I counted 
the rails which were used in laying the track 
from Evans to Denver the last connecting 
links in the iron chain which now binds the 
two towns, together. 

Married Martha F. Gannette of Bath, 
Maine in 1875, June 10th. Have three chil- 

—From Coutant Notes. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory 

Born in County Tiberany Ireland Novem- 
ber 1st, 1838 spent childhood at home on 
farm. At 21 years sailed for America choos- 
ing to weather an ocean voyage rather than 
stand a game law trial. A few days after 
arriving in New York, found employment in 
the Leigh Valley Pineries. In April '66 left 
for Fort Kerney, Nebraska via St. Joseph 
boat to Omaha and stage to the fort. Work- 
ed about a year for the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company on repairs from Fort Kerney 
to Wood River east and Plum Creek W T est. 
At this time the Indians were very war-like 
and made numerous raids on Ranches and 
R. R. Men.. Mr. Talbots duty took him over 
the road at all hours often without escort or 
companion and he remarks that it was only 
good luck that saved his head for men were 
killed almost daily along the route. 

In July was sent to Plum Creek to repair 
the line when on arrival found the Indians 
so numerous that he decided it too dangerous 
to work alone and so returned which was 
none to soon for that night they wrecked and 

plundered a Union Pacific train just across 
the river when the engineer and fireman 
were killed also two section men and one 
man scalped who in crawling away found 
his own scalp which the Indians had dropped. 
Afterward went to Omaha where he tried to 
have his scalp regrown — which failed. Mr. 
Talbot spent much time hunting wild game, 
Buffaloes, Elk, Deer and antelope which 
were very plentiful at that time on the Re- 
publican River. Mr. Talbot says that at two 
different times he saw with others of his 
party, two of their horses walk up and eat 
freely of the fresh buffalo meat that they 
had killed and hung up. September 27th, 
'67 he arrived in Cheyenne at that date the 
railroad was within 35 miles of Cheyenne at 
Pine Bluffs east of the city. 

Began laying the Sun dried brick which 
at that time was selling at $65.00 per M. 
These dobie brick were displaced by the 
burnt brick on arrival of R. R. On arriv- 
ing in Cheyenne pitched tent on ground be- 
tween 19th and 20th streets on O'Neil. The 
party amused themselves by playing cards 
and the outfit consisted of a cracker box for 
a table and boxes and saddles for seats. This 
night the party were startled by a sudden 
volley of fire-arms and upon investigation 
found some fifty armed men not more than 
twenty yards from their tent on inquiry 
found they had shot and killed two of the 
men, since that time every old settler records 
from that night. In '68 the first building 
of any consequence was finished being the 
old Catholic Church built by Father Kellev. 
Mr. Talbot plastered the same. The first 
brick block of any note was erected by Joslin 
and Parks, the same being now occupied 
by Kahmer, Beuchman and Jackson, Jan. 11, 
'70 the city was visited by a big fire on 16th 
and Eddy Streets. Mr. Talbot has engaged 
in the building of and owns several houses 
in the city. Is a good substantial citizen. 

— From Coutant Notes. 

Twelve Miles Southwest of Cheyenne, Wyo. 

One of the noted places in the early history 
of the Rocky Mountains is the Natural Fort, 
located twelve miles southwest of Cheyenne. 
In 1831 buffaloes were scarce in the Crow 
country and that tribe came down to the 
south side of the North Platte and hunted 
over the ground east and south of the Lara- 
mie range. A band of Blackfeet Indians, 
the heriditary foes of the Crows, for the 
same reason came south and hunted buffalo 
on the Laramie plains and finally crossed 
over Sherman Hill and ran onto the Crow 

The Blackfeet took refuge in the Natural 
Fort and defied the Crows to attack them. 
The latter tribe had no desire to risk a fight 
for the possession of the stronghold but it 
chanced that there were twenty white trap- 
pers with the Crow r s and this class of men 
never lost an opportunity to engage the 
Blackfeet in battle. Jim Beckworth, the 
noted mulatto trapper and Indian fighter was 



at that time chief of the Crows and the trap- 
pers prevailed upon him to join them in an 
attack on the Blackfeet. The assault was 
made upon two sides of the fort. The Crows 
were led by Beckworth and the white men 
by Robert Mildrum, a young Kentuckian, 
and it turned out to be one of the most san- 
guinary affairs that ever took place in the 
Rocky Mountains. There were 160 Black- 
feet within the fort and these were killed 
and scalped to a man. The Crows lost 40 
killed and more than double that number 
were wounded. Of the white men Robert 
Mildrum was the only man wounded. 

The Natural Fort which is located 12 
miles southwest of Cheyenne is an old land- 
mark and has a historv dating back to fur 
trading days. From the advance sheets of 
the second volume of Coutant's History of 
Wyoming we are enabled to glean the story 
of a Great Battle which was fought at the 
Natural Fort during the fall of 1831. A vil- 
lage of the Crow tribe of Indians came south 
on a buffalo hunt, crossing the North Platte 
at the mouth of the Laramie and followed 
up this stream until they reached the Box 
Elder then going south. The hunters killed 
a large number of buffalo on the plains east 
of the Laramie range and finally followed an 
immense herd down Crow Creek, covering 
the ground where Cheyenne now stands. In 
that neighborhood they ran into a band of 
Blackfeet warriors who had headed the big 
buffalo herd which the Crows were driving. 
The Crows greatly out-numbered the Black- 
feet but the first named tribe had with them 
twenty trappers and among these was Rob- 
ert Mildrum a noted man of the Mountains. 
Jim Beckwourth was the War Chief of the 
Crows. As soon as the Blackfeet were dis- 
covered, the Crows attacked them, driving 
them southwest. They soon reached the Nat- 
ural Fort, and here the Blackfeet took refuge, 
the Crows did not care to make an assault 
on the almost impregnable position; but the 
white trappers taunted them with being cow- 
ards and finally Jim Beckwourth raised a 
party and the attack was made. 

— From Coutant Notes. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming, June 8, 1903. 
Mrs. Ida K. Galbreath, 
State Librarian, 
Columbus, O. 
Dear Mrs. Galbreath: 

I wrote you on Friday last that I would 
later tell you the story of the origin and 
significance of the Wyoming Coat of Arms. 

The First State Legislature, which con- 
vened on November 12th, 1890, passed the 
law creating the Seal of the State. The word- 
ing of the law was as follows: 

A circle two and one-fourth inches in dia- 
meter, upon the lower half of which is em- 
blazoned a landscape, representing in the 
centre, a valley, through which flows a 
stream, upon the banks of which cattle are 
grazing and a man plowing; to the right of 
said valley, a range of mountains, upon the 
slope of which said mountains is represent- 
ed mining works. Said landscape is surround- 

ed by a ribbon scroll reaching from both 
sides of said landscape up to the top centre 
of said landscape, upon which rests a plat- 
form upon the outer edge of which is en- 
graved the words, "Equal Rights." Upon 
said platform stands the figure of a woman, 
with right arm uplifted, pointing to a five 
pointed star, within which are engraved the 
figures '44. From the said uplifted arm 
hangs a broken chain. To the left of said 
platform are engraved the figures 1869. To 
the right of said platform are engraved the 
figures, 1890. Entirely surrounding the said 
circle is a plain band three-eights of an inch 
in breath, upon the upper half of which are 
engraved the words, "Great Seal," and upon 
the lower half, the words, "State of Wyo- 
ming," in letters three-sixteenths of an inch 

After the adjournment of the Legislature 
some one called the attention of the Secre- 
tary of State, Dr. A. W. Barber, who was 
then Acting Gvoernor of the State, to the 
fact that the woman spoken of was a nude 
figure, and he, in consequence of this, refused 
to have the seal made. 

There was quite a talk in the newspapers 
about the matter and State Senator Chatter- 
ton, (now Acting Governor) who was the 
author of the bill explained its meaning. He 
had been a great admirer of Power's "Greek 
Slave" and the woman on the seal of the 
State was an exact copy of it, with the ex- 
ception that the chain on this woman was 
broken, signifying the enfranchisement of 
the women of Wyoming. 

The next legislature took up the matter 
and repassed the law but draped the figure 
after the style of the Goddess of Libert}'. 
Respectfully yours, 

(Signed) C. G. COUTANT, 

State Librarian. 

Bordeaux, Wvoming, 
August 22, 1897. 
Mr. D. Houghton, 
Dear Sir: — 

I have been up in the Reeshaw hills today, 
and sixteen years have made quite a change 
on the rocks the month, and day of the ; 
month is entirely gone but the names and the 
year can still be traced, the first is E. R. 

Lee 1841, the second is C. W. 

Lacy...... ...1841. 

I have no doubt myself by the looks of the* 
writing today and what I wrote beside it , 
sixteen years ago but that the first writing 
had been done forty years before I saw it. 

About a year ago my oldest son was up 
there, and by hearing me talking about this 
writing he looked it up and cut in the rock , 
with his knife, both their names under the 
old bleached ones, also the year but no month 
and from that I suppose he could not see } 
it then, the outlines of the horse is still there, 
but no more, the month that once could be 
seen between the above names and the year 
is February but the day I could not be sure. 
Yours very truly, 

COLIN MacDougall. 
— From Coutant Notes. 



1 have before me Captain Nickerson's his- 
tory of that part of Wyoming now called 
Fremont County. Misnamed, I believe would 
>e a fair criticism, that honor should have 
Jeen bestowed on Captain Bonneville; who 
pas the first explorer to give to the world, 
iy the graphic pen of the immortal Irving, 
:he first and most vivid picture of its grand 

It was perhaps on account of its scenic 
charms as well as its natural advantages, 
is a hunting country, that the tribes occupy- 
ng it made such strenuous resistance against 
jeing driven out. The prospectors and set- 
ters in that section of the country, that the 
Captain writes of, had the hot end of the 
warfare; as they had the Arapahoe to deal 
,vith and they were the most persistent fight- 
ers of all the Indian tribes, though the others 
A'ere bad enough to suit any one, who be- 
ieved himself gorged with a combative pro- 
pensity which caused him to love fighting 
or fighting's sake. 

"Camping on ones trail" was a saying 
iften used, meaning that an enemy was fol- 
pwing with his soul filled with an unfriendly 
eeling. Speaking of Arapahoes, I once 
leard.the old trapper, James Baker, say — 
tiuMfio man knew them better — "one of the 
Itssed varments might die on your trail; but 
le would never camp." 

Relentless and cruel, that was their man- 
ler of warfare; they supposed it would strike 
error into the hearts of their enemies. It 
vas the same with the aborigines of all Coun- 
ries, the.v could not comprehend the white 
nan's theory that savagery must give away 
o civilization. After many years of fighting 
>ur Government concluded that it was 
:heaper to support than to fight them; but 
low much sense, of what was strictly just, 
nfluenced our egotistical law makers yet re- 
nains a wild guess. 

However that might be — unto all who rode 
he hills and plains, there came a welcome 
eeling of relief: when we could leave our 
funs in camp and follow a trail to the top 
>f a hill without being skewed with arrows 
—then by a lance, spitted, like the prover- 
lial fowl for the roasting. 

The Indians did not have the same feei- 
ng of animosity against the trappers, al- 
hough they often fought them, as they have 
.lways felt against the prospectors and set- 
lers. The trappers were more of their way 
if living, mingled with them and were friend- 
y to some of the various tribes; they also 
vcre transient. As to the other classes, 
hough, the Indians had the perspicas to see 
vere coming to stay and would eventually 
leprive them of all that made their lives 
^orth living. 

An old time writer, wrote a book, the 

oral of which was: "Before you judge 
vhether the other fellow is right or wrong, 
ut yourself in his place." Would the white 
nan have submitted without a struggle? 

Generals All! They were taking every 
(ossible advantage of their enemies, super- 
titious fears often contributed to their de- 
cat; but they never lost a fight from lack 

ol physical courage or by shirking any man- 
ner of hardships. 

The story that follows happened in the 
year of 1864, if memory serves me rightlv, 
in the country North of Fort Laramie which 
was at that time the Indian undisputed ter- 

Told at a camp fire at old Fort Halleck. 
Dakota, by Robert Foot on his thirty-fourth 
birthday, 1808. 

In relating this story I will try to write 
it as nearly in his own words as I remember 

"I, a Scotchman born, came when a very 
young man to this Country; enlisted in a 
cavalry regiment and after serving the three 
years term, was discharged at Fort Laramie." 

"During that time I had saved a small 
sum of money; had learned the tailors trade 
and was thereby enabled to gather in some- 
thing more than what my soldiers pay 
amounted to." 

"After I was discharged I had accumulated 
quite a valuable band of horses, by buying 
from immigrants — stock that had been worn 
down poor on the trail from the States. "The 
grass was very good and the horses soon 
got in good condition, so that I could trade 
them for more thin stock with outfits coming 

"I had employed a half-breed, whom we 
all considered very reliable, to herd them 
just outside the Government Reservation and 
had every reason to believe that I had a fair 
chance to rake in a horse stake in the next 
three or four years." But, Alas! As Bobbie 
Burns so aptly tells it — "The best laid 
schemes of mice and men aft gang astray" 
— "So went mine." 

"There had been a crowd of Coffee Coolers 
camping down on the Rawhide and you all 
know what they are, generally harmless beg- 
gars." "Unfortunately, a band of young 
bucks had joined them and they are always 
the sour dough that raises the disturbance: 
the result was, that one fine evening my 
horses failed to come in." "The half-breed 
had crossed the river with all my property 
and he, together with the whole Indian camp, 
had faded away: their trail pointing North." 

"By the time I could get an outfit together 
to follow they had two days start, John 
Hunter and Tom Maxwell volunteering to 
accompany me." "The commander of the 
Fort sending a squad of cavalry, under Ser- 
geant Herman Hass, with orders to go as 
far as the Cheyenne River Valley." 

"We reached the breaks without any trou- 
ble or adventure, worth the telling, and by 
the appearance of the trail, we judged that 
we were as far behind as when we started; 
as the soldiers could go no farther — orders 
must be obeyed — it looked like a hopeless 
task for three men to undertake." "Equipt 
as we were, a great many would have called 
it a fool hardy job — I have no doubt." 

"An Indian's wealth is counted by the 
horses he owns: he will go through hellfire 
to get or keep them and we all know, that 
in this Country, they are almost a necessity 
to a white man's existence— that was the rea- 
son that I did not wish to give up the chase 
at this stage of the game." "So it was with 


my companions: they were not the kind of 
men to quit as our friend Athorp speaks it 
— If Hell howled before them." 

"With many good wishes for our success 
and sincere regrets that they could not ac- 
company us and be in at the fight, if battle 
it had to be, Herman and his troop turned 
back while we went on." I suppose there 
are many old residents in Cheyenne who re- 
member him. 

"Two days and a half travel, before we 
sighted their camp — about a mile away." 
The commotion, the sight of us created in 
their camp, was proof that they did not ex- 
pect to be followed. 

"Half a mile farther on the half-breed 
came out to meet us; his tale of woe was 
that the young men had taken the horses 
and himself with them. When asked would 
the Indians give the horses up — he replied 
by asking — how many soldiers behind? "We 
asked, why you think we got soldiers with 
us? He said — you no carry guns, only big 
pistols." We did not give him any satisfac- 
tion on that point; but told him that the old 
men had been about the Fort many seasons; 
had always been well treated and if they 
made any trouble, could not come there 
again. They would have to give back my 
property and make no more trouble. He 
only shook his head and said — too many 
young men. They want horses, then added, 
me go back — make talk — If give back, I 
make sign, come on — if no make sign. Go 
back, too many for you to fight." 

"Hunter thought it possible that the half- 
breed had told the Indians that he owned 
the horses: if that was the case the old men 
would be inclined to be friendly and if he 
could get in among them, he could induce 
them to give the stock up; but it would 
mostly depend on how many young bucks 
were in the camp." 

"Hunter had an Indian wife and family 
and had been a long time among them. The 
whole Sioux tribe knew him to be a man 
who always spoke the truth and neither 
feared man, beast nor evil spirit. They also 
fully and faithfully believed that neither gun, 
spear, arrow, nor any weapon they pos- 
sessed could harm him. All this, we banked 
as a great deal in our favor." 

"However, in about an hour an Indian 
rode out and gave the sign to come in. 
Hunter suggested, as we rode in, that we 
keep our hand on a gun and if they mean 
treachery — to charge straight through, shoot- 
ing as we went. Getting through, we could 
find shelter where we could stand them off." 

"And that was just what happened. We 
all got through alive and must have done 
them some damage, in return for what they 
did to us — which surely was enough. Tom 
and I each got two arrows — Hunters with 
his usual luck, untouched, though one young 
buck took a shot at him with a rifle at a dis- 
tance of not more than thirty feet. The fail- 
ure of the shot stopped the attack for the 
time being, otherwise — I think — we would 
have been as full of arrows as an old sage- 
hen is of feathers." 

"Near a quarter of a mile away, we dove 
into a patch of willows; across a shallow 

chalky stream that bent around under the 
lea of a clay butte, which was near enough 
perpendicular that it could not be climbed. 
It would have been a perfect place for de- 
fence, only for a pass through the middle 
of the butte made by the water at flood 
times and the wash from the Platte, beyond, 
had made an open space in front." 

"We got rid of the arrows and dressed our 
wounds as best we could. The one I got 
in my neck came within a small fraction of 
an inch of being fatal, but the other did not 
do much damage. I had learned something 
of surgery, while in the army, and it came 
in handy, otherwise our wounds might have 
been dangerous. But they soon became sore 
enough to suit the fiendish expectation of our 
enemies, whom we had to prepare to fight." 

"The gap, through where the draw emptied 
into our retreat, was narrow. We joined 
three logs and laid them across it, not much 
of a fortification, but we thought it might 

"One piece of good luck we had our pack 
horses — packs came through without a 
scratch and by the time we had eaten our 
cold bread and meat, Hunter had figured out 
what would happen. First they would do 
some scouting to see if there were any sol- 
diers coming — and satisfied on that score,, 
if they did make an attack, it would be about 
an hour before sun down. Then if they 
found us all able to fight, it would be mostly 
a bluff; but to get our four horses, they 
would consider it worth an attempt. It would 
probably be, by the old men in front making 
a wild demonstration to draw our attention, 
while the young bucks slipped in on us 
through the pass. But if they did not suc- 
ceed in killing one of us, which they might 
accidentally do with their old rifle, it would 
all end in a few minutes." 

"They could not get an arrow through the 
willows at short range, if they got that close 
and our old dragoon pistols are much longer 
range than their bows. Our only danger 
will be from that young buck's rifle and if 
one of us should be unlucky enough to get- 
his last call, he must hold his breath until 
he gets out of their sight, before he drops. 
I think either of us has nerve enough to do 
that. I once shot an antelope through the 
heart and he ran a hundred vards before he , 

"If they have no success on their first at- 
tack, they will let us alone and after dark 
we can ride away, just as if there was not 
an Indian within a hundred miles." 

"The attack began as Hunter had predict- 
ed, like a clap of thunder out of a clear sky. 
Dashing around the front, sending their ar- 
rows from under their horses necks. None? 
reached the willows, over which Tom and 
I responded, doing damage to their ponies 
with some careful shots. Although we had 
twenty four in our guns, we did not care 
to waste any. Hunter was guarding the 
gap in the butte. Suddenly the Indians in 
front made a dash as if they were intending 
to charge the works, shooting arrows into 
the willows. We got in some good work 
and stopped them by droping six ponies." 

"While that was going on in front, a party 


M young bucks came in at the head of the 
feass. Hunter opened on them with a shot 
from each of his guns, while they thought 
they were almost out of range, which caused 
them to stop and dodge around. Then he 
jumped on the logs and began shooting with 
first one hand and then the other. Just as 
I got there to help, the buck with a rifle 
sent a bullet through his heart. He stood 
there and fired the two last shots from his 
guns, jumped backward oft" the log and walk- 
ed behind the brush, where he fell dead. The 
Indians believing that the shot had missed, 
gave up the game and we saw no more of 

"After darkness had kindly spread its man- 
tle over all, we packed Hunter's body on his 
horse. Then rode out, up the gulch and 
onto the plain. Keeping as direct a course 
as possible toward the South, till we judged 
we had put eight or ten miles between us 
and the scene of our discomfiture." 

"The moon was up high enough to give 
us light. With our small camp shovel, we 
made a grave and laid the remains of our 
friend down into the bosom of Mother Earth. 
Covered and obliterated .every trace of a 
Brave and when the weary task was done, 
looked down upon it for a time. Tom re- 
3esrt«fl from the burial of Sir John Moore: 
No useless coffin enclosed his breast 
Not in robe or shroud we wound him, 
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest 
With his martial cloak around him. 

"As we silently rode away I thought of 
he one we had left behind and how his many 
riends would miss him. I wondered if death 
s the end of all that is? If we live again, 
iver in the Great Beyond, then our heroic 
riend is there, with all the great that have 
jpnie before. Where no king can claim the 
ight to wear brighter jewels in his crown 
han lie." 

"It was a toilsome journey back to the 

ort, but we got in about as near dead as 
wo men could, and still live. We were con- 
igned to the hospital for six long, weary 
veeks and after we got out neither Tom nor 
nyself, seemed to feel ourselves of much ac- 

"Some time after, I was lying down on a 
unk in my cabin, when my half-breed walk- 
cl in. He had no weapon, but a knife in 
is belt and as he stood in the middle of the 
oom, he smote on his breast and said, "Me 
ood Indian!" 

'An old horse pistol lay on the stand be- 
ide me, I grabed it up and let him have the 
ontents. ^ Then I said, you are a good In- 
ian now." 

"The Post-commander said, that is a little 
jo rough and locked me up in the guard 
ouse. I stayed there till Colonel Moon- 
ght came with a Kansas regiment and took 
omrnand of the Fort. He turned me out 
fid indorsed my claim against the Govern- 
ieiit of indemnity, for the loss of my prop- 
rty, which was paid by making me post- 
•ader here. It was better, perhaps, for me 
lan a cash payment, as claims against the 
Government, if paid at all, are delayed many 

"And now, boys, allow me to thank you 

for being what every story teller admires — 
Rood listeners, I will end the story here " 

Castroville, California, 


Outstanding in the annals of the year 1 ( ^24 
is the passing into the larger fuller life of 
two of our most distinguished citizens, the 
Honorable Joseph Maul Carey and William 
Bradford Ross. 

Early on the morning of October the sec- 
ond the sorrowful message was flashed over 
the wires that William Bradford Ross, Gov- 
ernor of the State of Wyoming, had an- 
swered the call. The entire State was plung- 
ed into grief. On Tuesday, September the 
twenty-third, Governor Ross addressed a 
large audience in Laramie and made a vig- 
orous plea for what he believed would be 
for the best commercial interests of the State. 
This was his last appearance in public. A 
few hours later he returned to the Executive 
Mansion in Cheyenne and on Thursday was 
removed to Memorial Hospital and an" oper- 
ation was performed for acute appendicitis. 
He survived the ordeal but a week. He en- 
tered into rest surrounded by his loved ones. 
Of the beauty and sanctity of his home life 
we need' not speak. 

Mr. Ross had served in the capacity of 
Governor but twenty-one months but his 
short administration was characterized by 
honor and zeal in the faithful discharge of 
his duties. He met the problems of his ex- 
alted station with buoyancy and optimism. 
He was deeply interested in the issues of the 
day and above all else was intensely human; 
he forgot no friend and no station in life was 
too lowly to commend his sympathy. These 
qualities endeared him to the people and 
caused them to think of him more perhaps, 
as a friend, but without any lack of esteem 
for him as their Chief Executive. 

Governor Ross was a communicant in the 
Episcopal Church; a member of the Masonic 
fraternit\ and a charter member of the 
Young Men's Literary Club. He was a 
lawyer by profession and in politics he was 
a Democrat. He was born, reared and edu- 
cated in Tennessee but when a young man 
cast his lot in Wyoming, where by force of 
character and personality he won his way to 
the distinguished position he was occupying 
when his career was so lamentablv and so 
suddenly ended. It is hard for the finite 
mind to comprehend that one so filled with 
the joy of living a clean, wholesome life, in 
the full vigor of manhood and his sun still 
high in the heavens, should have finished his 
earthly work. With faith that life is a con- 

"] cannot say, and I will not say. 
That he is dead. He is just away." 

"With a cheery smile, and a wave of the 

He has wandered into an unknown land." 

"Think of him still as the same I say: 
He is not dead; he is just away." 

— State Historian. 


In Memoriam 
i Joseph Maull Carey 

LL. D. 

"Jost'i)h Maull Carey was born at Milton, 
Delaware, on January 19, 1845, and died at 
his residence in Cheyenne, Wyoming, on 
February 5, 1924. After pursuing a course 
of study at Union College, he graduated in 
1864 from the University of Pennsylvania 
with the degree of LL. B., and in 1894 re- 
ceived the degree of LL. D. from Union Col- 
lege. He was admitted to the bar in 1867, 
practiced for two years in Philadelphia, and 
in 1869 removed to the newly created terri- 
tory of Wyoming, having been appointed the 
first United States Attorney for that Terri- 
tory. In 1872 he was appointed Justice of 
the Supreme Court of tbe Territory, and 
served as such until early in 1876. Having 
in the meantime become interested in the 
cattle growing industry and in the real estate 
business, he did not thereafter continue the 
practice of law. He was Mayor of 'Cheyenne 
four years, from January, 1881, until 1885; 
represented said Territory as a delegate in 
the 49th to the 51st Congresses, and was the 
author of and introduced the bill which ad- 
mitted Wyoming to statehood, and of the 
act for the reclamation of arid lands in the 
West known as "The Carey Act;" was elect- 
ed United States Senator by the first State 
Legislature and served until the expiration 
of his term in March, 1895; was elected Gov- 
ernor of Wyoming at the general election 
of 1910 and served out the term of four 
years. From 1876 until 1896, he was the 
Wyoming member of the Republican Na- 
tional Committee. From 1872 until 1876, he 
was a member of the United States Cen- 
tennial Commission. After retiring from the 
office of Governor, he became the Vice- 
President of the Federal Land Bank of 
Omaha, and also served a term as Trustee 
of the University of Wyoming." 

At a meeting of the Supreme Court Chief 
Justice Potter said: 

"This court was honored by the service of 
Judge Carey as one of its justices. He gave 
to the people in that office able and faithful 
service. He is remembered more, however, 
for his contribution to the later life and his- 
tory of Wyoming and the nation. It can 
have come into the life of but few men to 
have served a community and a common- 
wealth in as manj' different official capacities 
and during so long and continuous a period 
as has distinguished the life of Judge Carey; 
and then finally to spend the remaining and 
declining years of his life in that community 
and commonwealth as its most distinguished 
private citizen. It was the distinction of 
Judge Carey not only to have served in of- 
ficial capacities, first as United States At- 
torney for the district of Wyoming, com- 
mencing with its organization as a territory, 
then as Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
Territory, and successively thereafter as 
Mayor of his city, Territorial delegate in 
Congress, and United States Senator from 
the State upon its admission, and then, after 
the intermission of a few years, as Governor 
of the State for a term of four years; but he 

was also a pioneer and leader in the develop- 
ment of the productive resources of the Ter- 
ritory and State. He was among the first 
to envisage the capabilities of the natural 
grasses of the State for the growing of cat- 
tle and other live stock, and the productivity 
of the soil through intensive irrigation. And 
through the greater part of his life he re- 
mained interested in such development, 
through the investment of his own means 
and encouragement through the efforts of 
his public service, as evidenced by the act 
of Congress known as the 'Carey Act." But 
I desire to emphasize on this occasion the 
fact that he was distinguished and brought 
distinction to the State also by the high type 
of his character as a man and citizen. The 
unimpeachable uprightness of his character 
has always and everywhere been recognized. 
He was the soul of honor to as full an ex- 
tent as that can be said of any one. It was 
my good fortune to have known him for 
nearly forty-eight years, having arrived here 
within a very short time after he had vacated 
his judicial office. He was then an unmarried 
man; and then and ever since the purity of 
his life, the honesty of his purpose, and his 
line conception of the higher and better 
standards of human life necessary to a high 
quality of manhood and citizenship were 
notable and brought to him the high esteem 
and profound respect of the public. Unlike 
many who have achieved success in a west- 
ern community, he determined not to seek 
the supposedly fairer climes in which to 
spend the declining years of his life, but to 
remain in the commonwealth and the city 
with the upbuilding of which he had given 
so much of his time and thought, and where, 
though without recognition on his part, his 
character and the record of his life con- 
tinued to be a shining example. And that, 
we may be sure, will not be dimmed so long 
as the record of his life and achievements 
shall remain to be read or known to men in 
this growing commonwealth." 

On January 28th, Wyoming lost one of 
her best known pioneers, Mr. Michael Henry. 
Mr. Henry came to Wyoming in 1855. He 
had led a very active life; had been bugler 
in the army, an Indian fighter, cowboy, pio- 
neer ranchman, coal operator, bank president 
and closely identified with the upbuilding of- 
Wyoming. He passed away at his home in 
Douglas at the age of eighty-three. 

Mr. Skovgard of Basin passed away in 
May. Mr. Skovgard came to Wyoming in 
1909 and rose rapidly to the ranks of promi- 
nent men in Wyoming. Mr. Skovgard served 
in the State Senate for twelve years. 

Hiram B. Kelly crossed Wyoming in '49 
by way of .Oregon Trail. Miner, freighter, 
bullwhacker, Indian fighter, mail carrier, 
stage driver and stockman. One of the most 
resourceful, successful, highly respected men 
that ever helped to develop this western 
country. Came to Wyoming in 1857. 

On June 10th, Mrs. Mentzer, wife of form- 
er District Judge W. C. Mentzer, died sud- 
denly at her home after a short illness from 
heart trouble. Mrs. Mentzer was prominenl 
in religious, civic and social circles. She had 

)ccn actively identified with all activities that 
lad their basic principles in the betterment 
_>f human conditions. 

Mr. W. C. Irvine, affectionately known as 
'Billy Irvine," passed away in California, 
liter a lingering illness from diabetes. Mr. 
Irvine came to Wyoming in 1873, from that 
:ime until his death on July 27th, 1924, his 
leart and his interests were in Wyoming. 
His body reposes in the family plot in Lake- 
/icw Cemetery, Cheyenne. United States 
senator John B. Kendrick commenting on 
he passing of Mr. Irvine said, "He was un- 
excelled in man}' ways. In courage, both 
ihysical and moral, in devotion and loyalty 

his friends, he was beyond compare." 
"Buck" Taylor, Indian fighter, scout and 

lowboy and a member of Buffalo Bill's Wild 
pest show, died in Pennsylvania of pneu- 

Ezra L. Emery was one of the most popu- 
ar and widely known men in the State. He 
vas an early advocate for good roads. He 
lied suddenly while on a motor trip with his 

The following early settlers came to Wyo- 
ning previous to 1886, and died in 1924: 

Cunningham, Agnes. Came to Rock 
>.p*ings in 1878. 

Middlewood. Came to Saratoga in 1882. 

Sweet, Thomas P. Pioneer of Weston 
Bounty. Came to Newcastle 1880. 

Beneway, George C, Sheridan. Guard at 
illing of President Lincoln. 

Wolfe, William W., Lusk, 1850. Early 
rapper and fur trader. Pioneer in three 
tates. Age, ninety-three. 

Bloom, Mrs. A. M., Laramie, 1869. 

Stotts, Judge J. L. Pioneer Judge of Sheri- 
an Judicial District. 

Bryan, Ted. Pioneer cowboy, Rock River. 

Bryan, Zach. Pioneer freighter, Casper. 

King, Frank, Buffalo. Freighter. 

Morganson, James. Pioneer of Evanston. 
_ Street, George B. One of the last Pony 
pcpress riders, Arvada. 

Bernard, H. H. Pioneer since 1879, Rock 

Zane, Lou A. Pioneer since 1880, Basin. 

Peak, Mrs. Wilson. Pioneer woman of 
lig Horn County. 

Ellis, Mrs. Helen Foote. Arrived at Fort 
lalleck in 1873, interesting pioneer life, Elk 

Lavergne, Felix. Much to do with the up- 
uilding of Weston County. 

Whalev, W. T. One of the first settlers 

1 the Shell Creek Valley. 

Taylor, R. E. Pioneer since 1865, Kem- 

McGibbon, James. Oldest engineer in the 
?rvice of the Union Pacific, Laramie. 

Murphy, Wm. H. Operated first thresh- 
lg machine in this part of the country, 

Keating, Patrick J. Pioneer of Black Hills 
ays, Casper. 

Higgins, Mrs. J. E. Pioneer resident of 

Biever, Jacob. Veteran railroader of Sheri- 

China Joe. Survivor of Chinese riots; his- 


torical figure of Sweetwater County, Rock 


Jones, Jack, who recalls Sheridan's earliest 

Neville, J. H. Pioneer of Big Horn Coun- 
ty, Basin. Served in Legislatures. 

Mayden, John E. Resident of Platte Val- 
ley since 1886, Rawlins. 

Nelson, Judge A. M. Pioneer citizen of 
Weston County. 

Bertolette, Mrs. Sylvia. Pioneer of Doug- 
las since 1880. 

Shippen, John N., Manville. 

Rex, Alfred George, Evanston, 1872. 

Jacobson, Mary, Laramie. 

Cooper, Mrs. Mary, Cheyenne, 1867. 

McFarland, John, ranking pioneer of Platte 
county, arrived in 1866. 

MacFarlane, Peter, Wheatland, 1882. 
Served in Legislature; active in creating 
Platte County. 

Baldwin, M. N. First white child on Wind 
River; lived in Wyoming 61 years. 

Muir, Matt., Sr., Rock Springs, 1876. 

Blake, J. A., Sheridan. 

Blair, Thomas H., Manville. 

Porter, Lewis J. Native in Wyoming, born 
July 2, 1852, at Fort Halleck. 

Naismith, W. J. Oldest employee of the 
Union Pacific on the Wyoming" Division, 

Trollope, Mrs. Mary C. Married by Bill 
Nye in Laramie store 1877; dies at home in 

Tinkham, Frank, Douglas. 

Solomon, Mrs. Sophia, Cheyenne. 

Cahill, Patrick, Cheyenne. 

Farr, J. H, Laramie. 

Arnold, Mrs. Mary S., Wheatland. 

Bartlett, Mr. Lige, Kemmerer. 

Love, Mrs. John, Rock Springs. 

Rogers, Mrs. Philinda, Hudson. 

Mahoney, Mrs., Cheyenne. 

Campbell, A. D., Rawlins. 

Long, Mr. James, Sr., Rock Springs. 

Dougherty, Mary, was a Civil War nurse, 
came to Wyoming in 1876, Laramie. 

Woods, William, engineer for the Union 
Pacific nearly fifty years, Laramie. 

Redman, Mrs. M. T., pioneer of Buffalo 
since 1882. 

Baker, Charles S. Pioneer of Uinta Coun- 
ty, Evanston, 1878. 

Johnson, Mrs. Bertha. Pioneer'of Laramie 
City since 1884. 

Thompson, Joseph, Rock Springs, 1882. 
Johnson, Mrs. J. S. E., Kemmerer; came to 
Wyoming in 1881. 

Younts, Harry. Came to Wyoming 1866, 

Burnett, Mrs. F. G. Came to South Pass 

Steers, Mrs. Razalia, Wind River. Came 
to Wyoming 1863 over Oregon Trail to 
Green River. 

Spearing, Mr. John. Freighter into Buf- 
falo in 1878. 

James, Joseph Paul. Trapper, cowboy, 
1879; died at Bar C Ranch. 

Powell, George, Douglas. Bullwhackcr, 


Indian fighter, 1865; one of the best known 
and highly respected men in the State. 

Argesheimer, Airs. Harriet L. Passed away 
in California at the age of 87; she had been 
a resident of Wyoming for 35 years. She 
came to Fort Russell in 1875, her husband, 
Captain Argesheimer, being at that time at- 
tached to the Third Cavalry. 

Howard, Jennie. Comparatively few of 
those in Cheyenne not of the "old time" ele- 
ment knew Jennie Howard save by sight. 
She was worth knowing. In adversity, in- 

digence, she was cheerful, optimistic. — Chey 
enne Tribune. 

Conway, Mrs. Emma J. Came to Chey 
enne in 1872. Hers was the gracious dignit} 
of highbred womanhood of a period tha 
ended ere those of the now dominant gener 
ation were born. — Cheyenne Tribune. 

Shepperson, Mrs. J. L. Died suddenly a' 
her home in Casper in September. Mrs 
Shepperson was a native daughter and wa: 
an active member of the State Historica 


Received from 

Moore, Mr. Lee Order to Denver Marble & Granite Co., for George W. Pike 


Bonser, Mr. W. A Three receipts. 

Historical Books 

Hooker, Mr. W. F "The Bull Whacker," by Mr. Hooker. 

Dale, Mr. E. E "The Ranchman's Last Frontier," E. E. Dale. 

"The Cherokee Strip Live Stock Association," E. E. Dale. 
"Outline and References for Oklahoman History," Dale and 

Farthing, Mr. Charles Mitchell's School Geography, 1850, contains one 1849 mai 

of U. S. ( Loaned). 

Watson, Air. Elmo Scott "Famous Forts in United States History." 


Wagner, Henry, Sr 

Chaplin, W. E 

Original Manuscript 

Bonser, W. A One original manuscript. 

Two letters. 

Ordway, Edward, Sr One original manuscript. 


Watts, Air. A. E Two Tandem whips used in 1880 by Air. and Airs. Paul O 

One Tandem whip used in 1880 by John D. Gill. 
One pocketbook made from old fashioned boottop and given 
to A. R. Converse by Buffalo Bill about 1882, shows 
much wear. 

Aiyers, Mr. Ed One French road map. 

Mathes, Mr One Friedman brace. 

Bonser, Mr. W. A One prospector's scales used by Smith Bonser for weighing 

gold dust during the Black Hills gold excitement. 
One picture of Air. and Mrs. Smith Bonser. 
One framed commencement Program of Chevenne High 

School, June, 1880. 
One Republican ticket. 
One Roosevelt badge. 

Hebard, Dr. G. R One Muslin Laramie County Republican Ticket, date 1888 

Farthing, Mr. Charles Collection from south of Iron Mountain of flint arrows anc 

one-half ox shoes. 

Gordon, Air. Peter, Jr One gun found on Ham's Fork River at crossing of Ok 

Lander Trail, in August, 1893; one Indian mortar; one 
Indian war club; three knives: one bayonet; two speai 
heads; one old cornet; collection of sixteen guns; oik 
human finger petrified. 

Preiss Alurchand, Airs. V. E Butterflies, insects and flowers. (Loaned.) 

Aloore, Mr. Lee. Picture of George W. Pike monument in Douglas cemetery 

Kirkpatrick, Mrs. J. A Large picture of Senator F. E. Warren. 

War History 
Beach, Airs. Cora Al Bulletin No. 4, A. L. A. Proceedings of Annual Conven- 
tion of the A. L. A., vols. 1,2, 3. 
Scribner's Alonthly Magazine, Alay-October, 1875. 
Wyoming State Business Director, Volume 21. 
Autographed, Illustrated Copy of "Uinta County; Its Place in History," by Elizabetl 
Arnold Stone. 

Wyoming State Labor Journal. .Bound Volumes, 1919-20-21-22-23. 

C%L^—+-^— ^s 



Vol. 2 

Cheyenne, April 15, 1925 

No. 4 


Prior to the Civil war but little was known 
about the work and place of Army Chap- 
lains in this country. Our regular army was 
little more than a skeleton organization. A 
regiment was rarely all in one place. Small 
battalions were doing garrison duty or were 
on outpost service. There were post chap- 
lains at a very few stations where military 
needs required the gathering of a goodly 
number of soldiers. A standard military dic- 
tionary of that time defined a chaplain "as "a 
commissioned officer or clergyman who per- 
forms divine service." According to army 
regulations a chaplain was .entitled to the pay 
aii*dTrations of a captain of cavalry; but that 
provision did not indicate his rank, his sphere 
or his duties. The only specific utterance on 

this point in the articles of war was, that a I obtained until the reorganization of the army 
chaplain could be court-martialed "like any February 2, 1901, when provision was again 
other officer in case of a misdemeanor. ma de for chaplains for each regiment of in- 

With the formation of the great volunteer J fantry, thirty, each regiment of cavalry, fif- 
army of the United States, the regimental teen, and twelve for the artillery corps. A 
chaplaincy was provided for and very quickly '■ total of fifty-seven. There are now several 
sprang into prominence. H. Clay Trumbull, | vacancies, five I think. The law provided 
who was Chaplain of the Tenth Conn. Volun- j that a chaplain shall have the rank, pay, privi- 
tcers, tells us in a little volume he has pre- j leges, and allowances, of a captain and shall 

dier's life. Nor were those who died during 
the war the only chaplains who won honor 
or who deserve it. Many a chaplain who did 
good service then has shown in other prom- 
inent spheres since then that he was the sort 
to serve faithfully his fellows, his country, 
and his God, wherever his lot was cast. I 
have already mentioned H. Clay Trumbull, 
editor of the S. S. Times. Let me include 
Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, General 
John Eaton, United States Commissioner of 
Education, Bishop Lawrence McMahon of 
Hartford, Bishop C. C. McCabe, Dr. Samuel 
J. Nichols of St. Louis, Dr. Arthur Edwards 
of Chicago, editor of the North Western 
Christian Advocate. 

At the close of the war the office of regi- 
mental chaplain was abolished and post chap- 
lains were again appointed and this condition 

pared of personal recollections, that many 
new chaplains adopted the uniform of a cap- 
tain of cavalry, with the shoulder straps, 
sash and cord included. In a number of in- 
stances the position was given to irreligious 
laymen as a mere matter of favor to the 
commanding officer. Soon, however Con- 
gress enacted laws measurably righting these 
inconsistencies. It was and still is required 
that a chaplain be a duly authorized clergy- 
man of a religious denomination, that he be 
vouched for by at least five fellow clergymen 
of his denomination or by some recognized 
council of same. 

In a volume, ."Regimental Losses in the 
American Civil War," compiled by Col. Wm. 
F. Fox from the official records at Wash- 
ington, there is a chapter showing the loss 
of officers in action from army and corps 
commanders to officers of the regimental 

be upon the same footing as other officers in 
the matters of tenure of office, retirement and 
pensions. A proper uniform is provided for 
dress, full dress and service. 

Chaplains are appointed by the President. 
He usually designates a number of men for 
examination, they must be under forty years 
of age, pass a rigid physical examination and 
certain educational tests. 

The position of regimental chaplain is un- 
ique. He is a commissioned officer yet with- 
out command. No question of relative rank 
brings him into rivalry with any other officer. 
He may be welcomed alike by general or 
second lieutenant without the fear of any 
seeming inconsistency of association, if only 
he has the power of making himself person- 
ally or socially agreeable or useful. Yet he 
can be among the enlisted men as one en- 
tirely in sympathy with them, without any 

staff. Chaplains receive honorable mention ; thought on the part of either that he is step- 
in this chapter. "It will doubtless be a sur- I ping out of his sphere or crossing the line 
prise to many," says Col. Fox," to note the \ which divides commissioned officers as a class 
number of Chaplains killed in battle. These j from enlisted men as a class. In this a chap- 
gallant members of the church militant were ■ lain has a position utterly unlike any other 
wont to take a more active part in the fight- j person in the army; and it is his own fault 
ing than has been generally credited to them." j if he does not avail himself of it and improve 
Fie mentions eleven "among the chaplains | its advantages. Officers and men alike re- 
killed in action" and says that in addition I spect the office of chaplain and seem to relish 
here were several who lost their lives by ; having in their army life one person to whom 
he diseases and hardships incident to a sol- i they can speak in entire freedom, that is if 

(Copyright. 1925.) 



Published by the Wyoming State Historical 

State Historical Board 

Governor — Mrs. William B. Ross. 
Secretary of State — F. E. Lucas 
State Librarian — Flo La Chapelle 

State Historian — Mrs. Cyrus Beard 
Secretary of the Board 

Advisory Board 
Rt. Rev. P. A. McGovern, Cheyenne 
Dr. Grace R. Hebard, Laramie 
Mr. P. W. Jenkins, Cora 
Mrs. Willis M. Spear, Sheridan 
Mr. R. D. Hawley, Douglas 
Miss Margery Ross, Cody 
Mrs. E. T. Raymond, Newcastle 
Mr. E. H. Fourt, Lander 


Army Chaplains Coutant 

Green River Early History.. Coutant 

Reminiscenses of Early Days of Douglas 

: Bert Wagner 

Reminiscenses of Early Days in Wyoming 

....Mrs. Kate Lisberg 

Letter John Hunton 

: .F. V. Hayden 

A Tragic Death in the Early Days of 

Wyoming Elizabeth Speath 

An Appreciation ....Contributed 

Carbon County Copper J. C. Kennedy 

Cheyenne Weather Station 

, Emma J. Dobbins 

Notes and Comments State Historian 

Accessions State Historian 

the chaplain has the qualities and experience 
to fit him for such confidence. 

Our older soldiers — commissioned officers 
and enlisted men — especially those who have 
been through the recent war are as a class 
more reverent than people on the outside 
judge them to be. They support all services 
splendidly, the average attendance at army 
posts being far in excess of that in civil life. 
The Chicago-Record Herald recently made 
a canvas of the churches of Chicago and 
stated that the attendance of men at the ser- 
vices of the various churches on Sunday was 
less than 15 per cent of the male population. 
At army posts even where the facilities for 
attending city churches are the best, and the 
conveniences for services at the post are mea- 
ger, a better average than this is maintained. 
The soldier is human and because he is 
human he welcomes human sympathy. Away 
from home and friends he is usually glad to 
have the chaplain show an interest in him 
and his dear ones and to invite his confidence 
concerning matters that most deeply concern 
him personally. 

. An old time officer recently told me that 
the presence and services of the Chaplain on 
the eve of a battle or in the engagement itself 
was always inspiring alike to officers and 
men. He said that after they came to know 
him in the Phillipines, before which time the 
men had dubbed him Holy Jim the Sky Pilot, 
they counted his influence upon the men as 
the equal of a dozen additional men in the 

On the other hand some men who are 
natural cowards become chaplains. Two sol- 
diers were overheard discussing their chap- 
lains and comparing them. "He's always on 
picket with his regiment," they said, "and he 
is always ready to go with it into a fight. You 
don't catch our 'Holy John' up there." 

"You don't mean that our chaplain is a 
coward, do you?" in a scornful tone. 

"Oh, no! I don't say he is a coward; but 
whenever there is any firing ahead he has to 
go for the mail." 

"Well, but he has got to go for the mail, 
you know?" 

"Yes; but if the firing is sudden he can't 
stop to get his saddle on." 

And the soldiers laughed heartily over this 
picture of their frightened Chaplain. That 
Chaplain could not preach the soldiers duty 
of courage to men who saw that he gave way 
to unsoldierly cowardice. 

The regulations specify that the chaplain 
shall conduct one service each Sunday, and 
that he may be detailed by the commanding 
officer to conduct the post school for enlisted 
men. So that it is evident that the chaplain 
may do little or much according to his own 
inclination. An active man finds plenty to do 
in hospital, guard house, Sunday school, 
preaching services, mid-week service, literary 
society, etc. At many posts suitable chapels 
are provided- The one at Fort Reilly is of 
stone and cost about $12,000. Regulations 
already provide for heating, lighting,_ janitor 
service and seating but no provision is made 
for desk, bibles, hymn books, or communion 
service. The following from 1901 regula- 
tions, section 341, explains how such items 
are to be secured. "Books for post chapel 
services are not furnished by the Govern- 
ment; the chaplain is expected to secure them 
through the voluntary contributions of those 
interested." While the chaplain has no au-i 
thority in the matter he is expected to have a 
fatherly oversight of the post library. At 
most, posts good libraries are provided, a 
small government appropriation being avail- 
able to keep them up. Each company also 
has its reading room, usually supplied with 
choice current literature and papers from the 
locality from which any considerable num- 
i ber of the men come. . ! 

It costs the Government approximately 
$200,000 annually to maintain its corps of 
I army chaplains and it would be very natural 
! for you to ask if as a result of this outlay 
and "the effort of the men employed there are 
conversions in the army. From my short 
experience I can answer in the affirmative 
and could give several good illustrations. A 
man at Fort Douglas, where I was stationed 
for three months, was spoken of as the great) 


est drunkard in the post. The chaplain had 
talked with him and found him to be a man 
of some attainments and decided to try to 
win him to better things. He invited him to 
learn to play golf with him and furnished 
the clubs for both. The man showed great 
aptitude for the game and had soon won the 
post championship. A great friendship 
sprung up between chaplain and soldier, he 
was won to Christ and today is teaching in 
the post school at Douglas, an honored and 
respected man. One such case is compen- 
sation for many days of earnest work. 

You might ask does the religious zeal of 
the average young man lessen when he enters 
the army, and I would say from my obser- 
vation, not more than that of the average 
young man in any profession or occupation 
who is removed from home influences. Re- 
member that absolutely none of the restrain- 
ing influences of the home are thrown about 
the soldier. One man told me recently that 
he had not eaten a meal in a home for four- 
teen years. You find some such in civil life 
who live in boarding houses and Christian 
ministers know the problem such cases pre- 

In collection with the work of the chaplain 
mention must be made of the splendid work 
rfr^feris done by Christian workers from the 
cities that are located near army posts. The 
W. C. T. U., the various young people so- 
cieties, the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, pastors and laymen have contributed 
largely of their time for work among sol- : 
diers. Such effort is always appreciated and 
is encouraged by commanding officers as a 
rule. It is often the case that the only ser- 
vices conducted at a fort for years have been 
under the direction of volunteer workers and 
chaplains have come upon the field to find 
well organized Young People's Societies do- 
ing efficient work. The direct advantage of 
this outside co-operation, even with a chap- 
lain on the field, lies in the fact that if he is 
removed the religious work is not entirely 

(The above article is from an unsigned 
and undated manuscript in the Coutant Col- 
lection of notes in the State Archives. Mr. 
Coutant died in 1913. Reference in the man- 
uscript to a book written in 1901 places the 
date approximately. 

State Historian. 


Green River is the county seat of Sweet- 
water County 845 miles west of Omaha, the 
end of the Laramie and the commencement 
of the Western Division of the Union Pa- 

The place is a regular eating station, where 
passenger trains stop thirty minutes, those 
from the East for breakfast, those from the 
West for supper. Much taste is displayed at 
this station in the decorating the dining room 
and office with mountain curiosities, mineral 
specimens, moss agate and horns of game. 

The city has a good court house — costing 

$35,000; several dry goods, grocery, clothing 

and other stores; two hotels, and about 400 

opulation; also, a daily newspaper, the 

Evening Press. The Railroad Companv has 
a roundhouse of 15 stalls, and machine shops 
and repair shops, located here, that in the 
early years of the road were at Bryan. 

It is claimed that the surrounding country 
is rich in mines but one thing is certain it is 
rich in cattle; it has cattle on more than a 
thousand hills." 

The bluffs near this station present a pecu- 
liar formation called, by Professor Hayden, 
the "Green River Shales." 

The walls of these bluffs rise perpendicu- 
larly for hundreds of feet, are of grayish 
bluff color, and are composed of layers, ap- 
parently sedimentary deposits of all the 
thicknesses is from that of a knife blade to 
two feet, at the base of the bluffs the layers 
are thin and composed of arenaceous clay, 
with laminated sandstone, mud marking sand 
other indications of shallow water of mud 
flats; color for 100 feet, ashen brower; next 
above are lighter colored, layers, alternate 
with greenish layers and fine white sand. 
Passing up, clay and lime predominates then 
comes layers of boulders, pebbles, and small 
I nodules. 

! "There are also seams of very fine black 
hmestone, saturated with petroleum near the 
summit, under the shallow calcareous sand- 
stone, there are over fifty feet of shales that 
contain more or less of oily material. The 
hills all around are capped with a deep, rusty 
yellow sandstone which presents the pecu- 
liar castellated forms which with the handed 
appearance, have given so much celebrity to 
the scenery about the station. 

The point where our photographer stood 
to take the picture, was about one half mile 
below the bridge and immediately opposite 
the mouth of the noted Bitter Creek, down 
which, in years past, rolled the wagons of 
the pioneer — emigrants of the far west, on 
their weary way seeking new El Doradres 
towards the setting sun. 

OLD TOWN— a short distance from the 
station to the southward is the site of the 
old deserted city of Green River, near the 
old emigrant crossing, and thereby hangs a 
tale. This city was laid out in July, 1868, 
and in the September following contained 
2,000 inhabitants and many substantial wood 
and adobe buildings, and presented a perman- 
ent appearance. At that time it was thought 
by the citizens that the Railroad Company 
would certainly erect their division building 
near the town, and it would become an im- 
portant station in co'nsequence. But the Rail- 
road Company opposed the Town company, 
bridged the river, and as the road stretched 
away to the westward, the town declined as 
rapidly as it arose, the people moving on to 
Bryan, at which place the Railroad Company 
located their city — and sold lots. 

Twenty years ago an important trading 
station was located near this station just be- 
low on the opposite side of the river. In 
early days the Mormons had a ferry here, 
and as the river was seldom fordable — except 
late in the fall — they reaped a rich harvest 
of from $5.00 to $20.00 a team for crossing 
them over the river, according as the owners 
were found able to pay. These times were 


comparatively only yesterday and we might 
stay with the juggler "Presto!" and we have 
the "river house" and the big trains of mag- 
nificent palace cars, crossing the substantial 
railroad bridge, conveying their hundreds of 
passengers daily from every land and clime — 
whirling them across the continent from 
ocean to ocean, on schedule time. Do these 
passengers while partaking of a princely 
meal, lying at ease sipping their wine (or 
possibly ice water) and smoking quietly their 
cigar, ever think of the hardy pioneers who 
toiled along on foot, and alone many times 
over seven months traveling the same dis- 
tance that can now be made in five days? 
These pioneers suffered every kind of hard- 
ship, many unto death and those that re- 
main are fast passing away. Yet, the fruits 
of their adventurous and daring intrepidity 
can be seen no every hand. 

GREEN RIVER. This stream rises in the 
northwest portion of the Wind River Moun- 
tains at the base of Fremont's Peak. The 
source of the river is found in innumerable 
little streams about 200 miles from the rail- 
road crossing, about 150 miles below the sta- 
tion the river empties into the Colorado 
River. The name "Green River" implies the 
color of the water, but one would hardly 
expect to behold a large rapid river, whose 
waters possess so deep a hue. The river 
for some distances up the streams runs 
through a soil composed of decomposed rock, 
slate, etc., which is very green and easily 
washed and worn away which accounts for 
the color of the water. At all seasons of the 
year the water is very good — the best by far 
of any found in this country. The tributaries 
abound in trout of fine flavor, and the main 
river is well stocked with the finny tribe. 
Game of all kinds abound along the river 
and in the adjacent mountains. 

Fontenelle Creek comes into Green River 
forty miles north and is especially noted for 
game, trout, etc. 

The lower stream presents a very marked 
feature, aside from the high bluffs of worn 
sandstone besides sedimentary deposits. 
These features are strongly marked, above 
the bridge for several miles. 

From Green River station the first ex- 
ploratory expedition of Major Powell started 
on the 24th of May, 1869. The party con- 
sisted of about a dozen well armed, intrepid 
men, mostly western hunters. They had four 
well built boats, with which to explore the 
mysterious and terrible canyons of Green 
River and the Colorado. These gorges were 
comparatively unknown, the abrupt moun- 
tain walls having turned the travel far from 
their sterile shores. Science and commerce 
demanded a solution of the question, and 
Major Powell undertook to solve the prob- 
lem. The party encountered hardships, dis- 
covered beautiful scenery, and in their report 
have thrown much light on the mysteries 
of this heretofore not much traveled country. 
The result of the expedition afforded the Ma- 
jor materials for a course of lectures and 
demonstrated the important fact that the 
Colorado canyon is not navigable. 

We hear the Major has since the above 
made an expedition to the river, but are not 
informed as to the results. A wagon road 
leads north up the east side of the river, 
on which a stage runs regularly to the 

cipal cities are South Pass, Atlantic and 
Hamilton. They are situated four miles 
apart. The principal occupation of the citi- 
zens is quartz gold mining. Many of the 
mines are said to be very rich, but for some 
reasons are very unprofitable to work. The 
principal mines are on the Sweetwater river;, 
a tributary of Wind River, which passes 
through very rich mineral and agricultural 

Wind River is a tributary of the Big Horn 
River which empties into the Yellowstone. 
The streams abound in fish including trout 
of excellent flavor. The mountains and val- 
ley furnish game in abundance, deer, elk, 
antelope, mountain sheep, buffalo, brown, 
black and grizzly bears. Indians difficulties 
have retarded mining, agricultural and busi- 
ness operations very much in the past. 

Leaving the station we cross Green River 
on a fine bridge, the cars passing along 
through heavy cut almost over the river in 
places affording a fine view of the cliffs on 
the east side of the river. Twenty miles to 
the northwest is a large barren butte, stands 
in isolated loneliness. Soon we turn to the 
left leaving the river and pass along a dreary 
waste for 13.4 miles and arrive at Bryan. 

— From Coutant Notes. 


In the spring of 1886 the Fremont Elkhorn 
and Missouri Valley Railroad (now known 
as the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad) 
was built from Chadron through Eastern 
part of Wyoming to Douglas which was the 
terminus of the Railroad for several years. 
The first lots were sold in September 1886 
and a town sprung up in three months with 
a population of about two thousand five hun- 
dred and it was the liveliest and busiest town 
in the State until the railroad was extended 
to Casper several years later. Before the 
railroad reached Douglas and the^ town lots 
were sold, a village of Tents and Shacks was 
built on Antelope Creek about a half mile 
from the Douglas townsite and I was one of 
the first merchants to open up a Clothing 
and Mens Furnishing store in the town of 
Antelope. I had most of my merchandise 
shipped from Chicago and Omaha to the end 
of the railroad and freighted from there in 
wagons drawn by fourteen to sixteen horses 
or mules, and it took about 6 days to make 
the trip to Douglas, the roads being very 
rough especially in the spring of the year. 
1 I also had some merchandise consigned to 
! me from Omaha via the Union Pacific R. R. 
i to Rock Creek (now called Rock River, Wyo- 
ming) and freighted from there to Douglas. 
! A man by the name of William Taylor who 
owned a" large Mercantile establishment at. 
| Rock Creek, took charge of all freight ship- 
ments at that point and forwarded same to 
I Douglas merchants by Freight Teams. T t 


took from seven to ten days to haul freight 
from Rock Creek to Douglas at that time, 
cost from three to five cents per pound for 
hauling. Among the freighters who had out- 
fits were George Powell, Al Ayres, Jim 
Smith, Abe Daniels and Barney Gunning. 
There were many others whom I cannot re- 
call at this time. All of these men settled 
in Douglas later on and were very prosper- 
ous, in fact two of them (Abe Daniels and 
Jim Smith) became rich. The former died 
several years ago and left quite a large 
estate but Jim Smith is still living and resides 
in Casper now and owns more real estate 
than any other man in Casper. He is also 
proprietor of the Natrona Hotel in Casper 
which is a money making proposition. When 
I reached the town of Antelope on Antelope 
Creek near the townsite where Douglas now 
stands, I could not find any lumber or other 
material for erecting a store building so I 
wired to Chicago for a large Tent, thirty 
feet wide and fifty feet long. By the time 
it had arrived I had secured a few rough 
boards and two by fours, and with these I 
built a frame thirty by fifty feet to stretch 
the tent over. I also built a temporary floor 
and some shelving and counters out of the 
ro»gh lumber so as to have a suitable place 
to open a temporary store. After I had un- 
packed all of my merchandise, found that I 

ad ordered too large a tent so I rented half 

f it to Charles Clay of Rock Creek, Wyo- 
ming, who opened up a Grocery Store and 
ve were the leading merchants in the town 

f Antelope, Wyoming, until the fall of 1885 
vhen the town of Douglas was built and 
very one in the vicinity moved over to Doug- 
as. The first lot was sold to DeForrest 
~ichards Sr., for twelve hundred and fifty 

ollars $1,250.00) and he immediately began 
he erection of the First National Bank 
Budding of Douglas which was completed in 
ibout three months. He also bought another 
ot on the opposite corner for which he paid 
me thousand dollars and on this corner he 
erected a large one story brick building which 
vas first occupied by the C. H. King Mer- 
cantile Company, of which DeForrest Rich- 
irds, Sr., was a half owner. This was the 
argest mercantile establishment in Central 
Wyoming for a number of years, and when 
he railroad was extended to Casper, this firm 
xioved to Casper and also established the 
"asper National Bank. A few years later 
Vlr. A. J. Cunningham bought the interests 
>f C. H. King and the firm name was chang- 
:d to Richards and Cunningham Company, 
vho now operate one of the largest Depart- 
ment Stores in the State and also own the 
~asper National Bank. Two prominent citi- 
zens of Casper, viz. Patrick Sullivan and P. 
1. Nicolayson are associated with them in 
he bank and store. I am ahead of my story 

gain and must write a few more reminis- 
:ences of the early days of Douglas where I 
vas located for about ten years. 

I bought a lot in Douglas on the first day 
if the lot sale in September in 1886 and paid 
ive hundred dollars for it in the middle of 
he block where the Yellowstone Garage is 
iow located. It took me two days to get the 

sagebrush off of this lot which was about 
three feet high; I then began the construc- 
tion of a one story frame store building which 
cost me about twenty-five hundred dollars 
and before moving in my new store I gave 
a big dance free to everybody, the music be- 
ing furnished by Abe Daniels and myself, he 
being an expert on the fiddle and I played 

the piano. The refreshments consisted of a 
Dutch Lunch with all the beer they wanted 
to drink and all free. This made a great hit 
and was a good advertisement for me. It 
was certainly a mixed crowd, mostly cow- 
boys, Railroad men, and Surveyors, but all 
| had a good time. 

j After I had removed my stock of merchan- 
| dise from the big Tent of Antelope Creek to 
the new store in Douglas, some cowboys cut 
| out the entire north side of the tent for tar- 
paulins and the tent was ruined so I cut the 
■ balance of it into strips and sold them for 
tarpaulins. There were a lot of shacks and 
I tents erected in the old town of Antelope 
| Creek and most of them were moved later on 
I to the new town of Douglas, Wyoming I 
[remember that the "Budget Office" (an old 
| shack building of rough boards and tar 
paper, etc.) was erected right across the 
street from my tent store, and next to my 
store was another tent owned by A. R. Mer- 
ritt, it being used for a Drug Store. Mr. 
Merritt now owns one of the largest De- 
I partment Stores in Douglas. He came from 
! Nebraska (Fremont) and I from Laramie, 
I Wyoming. There was also a large Hard- 
! ware Store in a tent and it was owned by 
Peavy and Ralston, who later on moved to 
the town of Douglas but did not remain there 
long. Just across the street from store on 
Antelope Creek was another shack built of 
rough boards and tar paper, etc., occupied by 
C. R. Maurer as a law office and next to that 
a building that looked like a barn also built 
of rough lumber and tar paper, etc., and it 
was occupied by the "Rowdy West" news 
paper, which by the way was always printed 1 
on pink paper similar to the Police Gazette 
but minus the pictures. It was owned and 
operated by W. S. Kimball, Sr. and W. S. 
Kmball, Jr, who came there from Audobau, 
Iowa in the spring of 1886 and both have i 
been good friends of mine ever since al- 
though their politics were not the same as 
mine. W. S. Kimball, Sr., is now about 
eighty-four years of age and lives in Glen- 
rock, Wyo., while his son W. S. Kimball, Jr., 
is now a resident of Casper, and owns two 
large Drug Stores. He was at one time 
Mayor of Casper, and is now a highly re- 
spected resident of the community. 

There were several other pioneers or "Old 
Timers" (as I call them) who were in busi- 
ness in the little town of Antelope before 
Douglas was built, but I cannot recall them 
at this time. After the town lots were sold 
in Douglas nearly every business man in the 
town of Antelope began to erect buildings 
and within three months there were several 
blocks oi business houses erected and num- 
erous residences. The First National Bank 
Building was the largest building in Douglas 
for several years, and the C. H. King Mer- 


cantile Co. also erected a very large one 
story brick building. The Maverick Bank 
Building was erected by a Mr. Garver who 
was a large coal mining operator of Des 
Moines, Iowa, and he started his son (Carl 
Garver, who by the way is now the Mayor 
of Des Moines, Iowa) in the banking busi- 
ness. But this bank only laste da few years, 
as Carl Garver was too liberal, and loaned 
money freely especially to the Cowboys who 
were all his friends, and he would take al- 
most anything for security, such as a saddle, 
revolver, or a pair of spurs and their notes. 
While the bank building was being erected, 
they decided to name it the "Maverick Bank" 
as the name "Maverick" was very popular 
in those days, meaning an unbranded steer, 
and many cattlemen or ranchmen became 
rich by rounding up Mavericks and branding 

There were many funny incidents hap- 
pened in Douglas during the Early Days and 
one of them I can vividly recall. 

A Jewish merchant by the name of Fuhr- 
man located in Douglas during the first year 
at its existence, and I believe he was the "only 
Jew in Douglas at that time. Although he 
was very popular the boys were always play- 
ing tricks on him. One day a party of young 
men toik him out hunting, and they traveled 
quite a distance and had to camp out over 
night. One day one of the party killed a 
Coyote and that night while Mr. Fuhrman 
was asleep they put the Coyote in bed with 
him, and when he woke up and felt the ani- 
mal rubbing against his face he was almost 
frightened to death, he first thought it was 
alive. Another funny incident happened at 
about the same time. A young lawyer by the 
name of Beemis who came out from Iowa to 
visit Carl Garver, Robert Green and Mr. 
Blackburn and he was a real "Tenderfoot" 
as they called any green fellow in those days. 
So they had him go out Snipe Hunting and 
made him carry a gunnysack with a barrel 
hoop in it to keep it open. They told him 
to sit down and hold the sack while they all 
went to drive in the Snipe and he did so but 
fell asleep holding the sack, and when he 
woke up all had gone home and there were 
no snipe in the sack, in fact I guess there 
were none in the country so the joke was on 

After Douglas became an incorporated 
town there were many nice refined people 
settled there and all were prosperous until the 
railroad was extended to Casper. After that 
over half of the population followed the rail- 
joad to Casper which is the largest town in 
Wyoming. Many of the pioneers or old 
timers -of Douglas are still living and many 
of them make their home in Casper. Nearly 
all of them have been prosperous and are en- 
joying their old days in a nice modern city. 
Well I think that I have written enough 
about the early days of Laramie and Douglas 
so will close but later on I may write some 
interesting events which have not yet been 
published about the early days of Casper. 
Yours respectfully, 
(Signed) BERT WAGNER, 

631 East 2nd Street, 
Casper, Wyoming, 


By Mrs. August Kate Leisberg 

Age 70 years 

Arriving November 23rd, 1889 from Ell 

Horn, Nebraska I found Green River, Wyo 

ming a most barren town; only a few fam 

ilies very busy but kindly disposed. 

In a few days I left for Miners Delight 
where_ my sister Mrs. E. J. Morris resided 
At this place two hundred men mining foi 
gold were working day and night. Pros 
pecting for gold was the daily topic of con 
versation, amusements were not much varied 
sleigh riding, coasting over high snow drift: 
and dancing were all at that time 

Health seeking was a great question, an 
swered by some wonderful demonstrations 
Wealth sought it as the prospector did foi 
gold. Not all the tents dotting the Soutl 
Pass hills to Father Washakies Peaks wen 
the abode of Indians. Father Washakie was 
a thoughtful old man; while he sanctionec 
the Sun-dance it has often been quoted tha' 
he advised young heroes "to live peacefu 
with all brethren for the Great Spirit mad« 
us all. We are many like leaves on the trees 
and he will not let it rain or the grass grow 
your families will all starve to death if yot 
go on the war path and white man's sickness 
will come upon you." 

First, if not most disappointing was wher 
I went to live on the Reservation, near Fori 
Washakie. I looked and looked in vain foi 
the Hiawathas and heroes of the beautifa 
Indian maidens, the Pocahontas type I used 
to read about when I was a small girl in 
Mexico, Missouri, which was my native 

My first occupation as teaching school in 
South Pass; a school which had been pre- 
viously taught by Dr. Kate Nelson, a sister 
of Mrs. Captain Nickerson (Mrs. N. G.). I 
had to ride horse back over a rough, un- 
broken, snowlined road two and one-half 
miles with two of my pupils behind me. 
Fifty dollars per month and twenty for 
board, while this experience was a hardship 
I broke in and conquered. Teachers now 
could hardly believe how trying such things 
were then, as we have good roads to walk 
or ride on now, much better salaries and 
more comfortable places to board. All due 
to intelligent progressiveness. Many people 
were as up to date in general information 
then as they are today, only they had to adapt 
themselves to surroundings and conditions of 
the country. Educational opinions were in 
unison. People wanted schools to prosper 
and develop for the betterment of their child- 

Mrs. Esther Morris was the first woman 
to advocate Women Suffrage in Wyoming. 

She served for a time as Justice of the 
Peace in Atlantic City. She is still repre- 
sented in Cheyenne by near relatives in pro- 
minent families. 

Religion and politics did not seem to take 
up time and thought as at present although 
there could be named many good Christians 
and politicians who did try to do some good. 


Editing of newspapers was well con- 
ducted, as their statements of Wyoming's 
resources was heralded in every direction. 

The Wind River Mountaineer, edited by 
[Sr. Winn could be compared to a light in 
the window of the wilderness. 

There were some very fine principled boys 
among the cowboy class, some from New 
York drawing rooms who received letters 
from mothers and sisters which were equal 
to any Bible sermons of the present day. 
Society after a time improved. Some were 
as diamonds in a rubbish pile; some helpless 
through ignorance; some helplessly poor but 
the most marked feature was sympathy for 
all who were in sickness or distress. 

The Murphy Oil Wells were very small 
cavities. They are known now as the Dallas 
Oil Wells, and are considered the best in all 
the Lander country. They are well worked 
and developed by an English Company at 
present. The railroad and oil boom was 
talked of twenty years before they reached 
the Lander country but great good came at 

Popoagie Canyon Valley was very cold, 
young people cannot imagine how the clim- 
ate has changed. Even Westerners never 
expected to see strawberries and asparagus 
^r-*f\v in a Lander garden. Mr. Ed Young 
of Red Cannon commenced early to culti- 
vate an apple orchard and succeeded after 
years of hard work. After the fruit experi- 
ment was successful other varieties of food ! 
products were tried, some were very good 
and were adapted to the variations of clim- 

The freighting of provisions into the in- 
habited districts would make as good a mov- 
ing picture now as the Covered Wagon but 
there was not much romance about freght- 
ing then, as storms delayed the traffic and 
many persons had to live for a time on car- 
rots, beans, rice and sagebrush tea. 

Agriculture was in a very backward con- 
dition. There was not much machinery and 
very poor market. Stock raising was best and 
while many suffered hardships, as we all did, 
some made money and money made better 
times for all. But for a new country there 
was considerable activity in real estate, 
:hurches were built, Sunday Schools started. 
The country was progressive but in crude 
ways for a time. Some of our best citizens 
}f that time live here today. Farmers were 
:alking land. The man with land is the com- 
ing man but many took on more than they 
:ould handle profitably. "Farmers Alliance" 
oroved a failure. Irrigating ditches were the 
:ause of much controversy. 

Honorable Mr. James Patton conducted 
md read funeral services when called upon 
md was a very popular citizen. Mr. H. G. 

vants — people showed their appreciation by 
keeping them to handle business affairs. Mrs. 
Smith-Sherlock kept the store and Post- 
office; Mrs. H. Sherman the boarding house 
and occasionally held Bible meetings. Peo- 
ple seemed to appreciate them as an Oasis 
in the Desert of Western Life. Dr. T. 
Maghee. Sr., was Dentist, Doctor and almost 
nurse in cases. Archie Slack, eldest son of 
Mrs. Esther Morris, edited the leading paper 
known as the South Pass News. 

Many changes in every way continued for 
the uplifting standard. Only two contagions 
tried to mar Mother Earth's material happi- 
ness, snobbery and chicken pox. One de- 
pended on the flourish of the crops, the other 
on not heeding, prevention cures. My own 
air castles, were far away. But the people 
who attached their interests, and no differ- 
ence where they wandered came back, built 
nice residences and paid many a worthy 


From letters to Mrs. Beard. 

January 29, 1925. 
In answer to your question "when was the 
lime kiln west of the Fort built" I will try 
to give you such information as I can on the 
subject. Boulders of lime rock are promis- 
cuously scattered over the Fort Laramie sec- 
tion of country for many miles around and 
in the early occupation of the country .by the 
Military some lime was made in a crude way 
by piling lime boulders and wood together 
and burning the lime rock. It was also 
known that large deposits of lime stone ex- 
isted in what is now known as the Guern- 
sey neighborhood. 
^ Sometime during the early construction of 
Fort Laramie the Military authority — com- 
manding officer or Quartermaster — employed 
a few citizens (I heard their names and per- 
sonally knew one of them) to burn a kiln of 
lime at Warm Springs about 2y 2 miles south 
and west of the town of Guernsey and lo- 
cated on the Oregon Trail. There was con- 
siderable lime burnt at this place for several 
years but in the meantime another ledge or 
deposit of a better quality of lime stone had 
been discovered at Cold Springs about \ l / 2 
miles north and west of Warm Springs 
which I think, is the location your question 
refers to, as it was the place the Govern- 
ment got lime from for many years for both 
Fort Laramie and Fort Fetterman. In 1871 
a good quality of lime stone was discovered 
on La Parelle Creek near the Natural Bridge. 
Fetterman was then supplied from that lo- 
cality. Fort Laramie continued to get lime 
from Cold Springs until the Cheyenne and 
Northern R. R. was constructed, after which 
time it had its lime shipped to Bordeaux by 

SJickerson (Captain) and family were among train. During 1877 and 78 and 79 and the 
he residents. Mr. James Kirae kept a store j early eighties some small kiln of lime was 
md a saloon. , burnt each vear, of boulder lime rock along 

Mr. W. T. Shane, Mr. Mart McGrath and : the Laramie river some nine or ten miles 
Mr. Enderly, were the first three men who wes t of Fort Laramie. During 1867 several 
aid out the town site of Thermopohs. Mr. I thousand bushels of lime was burnt at Cold 
N. T. Shane is living with his family at : Springs for Forts Laramie and Fetterman bv 
>resent in Thermopohs. Many others could Dan McUlvan and much of it hauled by 
>e mentioned who proved good public ser- Million Dickerson, both of whose names you 


can find in the "Old Ledger." I think I 
have given about all the history of lime there 
is worth giving. 

Most respectfull, 
(Signed) JOHN HUNTON. 

Fort Saunders, W. T. 
August 24, 1868. 
Dr. Hiram Latham, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Dear Sir: 

I take great pleasure in communicating to 
you some of the results of my examination 
of the iron districts of Wyoming territory. 
I regard the iron ore leads of the territory 
as of great value, and almost indefinite in ex- 
tent, and if the coal, of which there is the 
greatest quantity can be made useful in 
smelting this iron, it will prove as great a 
source of wealth as the iron ore beds of 
Pennsylvania are to the people of that state. 
The iron mines I examined were those con- 
nected with the coal formations along the 
eastern base of the Laramie Range, com- 
mencing about ten miles south of Cheyenne 
City. This ore is amonite, commonly known 
as namehematite, or brown iron ore. The 
specimens obtained were, very compact, 
showing that it must have been derived from 
the carbonite of iron, and it will certainly 
prove to be of excellent quality. 

I have estimated the coal formations south 
of Cheyenne City and north of the Arkansas 
to occupy an area of 5,000 square miles, and 
all this country is covered with brown iron 
ore to greater or less extent. 

It is said to yield seventy per cent of me- 
talic iron and about three tons of the ore is 
required to make one ton of pig iron. This 
ore has been pronounced by such authorities 
as Profs. Hall and Silliman equal to the best 
brown ore of the east. 

At the sources of the Chugwater are mass- 
ive beds of magnetic iron ore of the best 
quality. It is very much like the Champlain 
ores of the east, and cannot fail to produce 
the best of iron. 

The quantity is unlimited and if the pow- 
erful corporation of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road can succeed in combining the two great 
elements of wealth in this territory, coal and 
iron, so as to utilize them, Wyoming must 
eventually hold a relation to the contiguous 
territories similar to that which Pennsylvania 
now sustains toward the neighboring states. 
Rolling mills and iron furnaces will spring up 
everywhere, and it will cross the Missouri 
River on its way westward. 

You have enough iron ore on the territory 
of Wyoming alone to supply the demand of 
the entire west for a generation or more, and 
discoveries will be made almost daily. The 
time has come when the vast mineral wealth 
of this region must be made useful, and suc- 
cessful methods of reducing the ores will be 
sought and found. 

The great interest you have manifested in 
the development of the resources of this 
western country has led me to address this 
brief note to you and I hope I may be able 
to inform vou of other discoveries from time 

to time. Wishing you much success, I re- 

Sincerely yours, 

United States Geologist. 


One of the oldest ranches in Campbell 
County is the present Lee and Spaeth ranch 
about seven miles east of Gillette, the pre- 
sent county seat. This ranch was originally 
homesteaded by Hank Mason who lived in 
California in the early sixties, where he was 
a placer miner and a professional hunter. He 
went into the Black Hills of Dakota in 1877. 
His headquarters were a dug-out on the pre- 
sent Lee and Spaeth ranch. He continued 
to hunt, until buffalo and bear were gone, 
then worked for other people until Crook 
County was organized in 1885. He was the 
first road supervisor elected, and graded the 
road from Inya Kara Creek to Sundance. 
xVIr. E. B. Armstrong, who now lives in Cali- 
fornia and who was himself one of the early 
settlers of the northeastern part of Wyo- 
ming writes as follows about Mason: 

"I first met Hank Mason on the Belle 
Fourche River in 1881 killing buffalo for their 
hides. He had killers and skinners doing a 
big business. About 1880 he went down on 
what is known as Stockade Beaver creek, in 
Weston County and started a saw-mill near 
the head of the creek, far back in the moun- 
tains, about 1893 or 1894. During the spring 
he had been seeing a bear track so one day 
he said to his wife, 'I'll take along my gun.' 
The gun was a 76 model Winchester. He had 
shells for it that he loaded himself. He 
walked along through short thick pines and 
thick brush. There were some very large 
pine trees, several having been blown down 
in heavy storms. As Hank walked quietly 
around a large, fallen tree, a large bear rose 
up out of his bed. Hank was not over 30 
feet from the bear. He fired as quickly as he 
could but over-shot, hitting the bear in the 
shoulder. The bear started for him. He 
quickly tried to throw another shell into the 
gun, but being a reloaded shell, it had swol- 
j len and stuck, and he could not get that shell 
J out — he was helpless — but turned to fight. 
! He fought that bear — no one can ever know 
i how long — we could only guess by the line 
j of blood and rocks. Hank's elbows were 
i both bitten to a pulp, — as the bear would try 
to get his head in his mouth, Hank would 
guard his face with his elbows. It was evi- 
dent that the bear left him for dead; as Hank 
had tied his wounds with his shirt and had 
started for home. The bear evidently heard 
him and came back. Hank tried to climb 
a small quakenasp tree or bush, but the bush 
proved too small and he could not climb 
high enough. The bear reached up, got him 
by the heel and pulled him down by tearing 
away all the flesh from his heels. The bear 
succeeded in getting Hank's head into his 
mouth, crushing his skull. The next day 
Hank was found, cared for and buried by- 
friends. • The trail of the bear was followed 
with dogs the second day. He was found 


about five miles away. When he heard the doing guard duty on the Union Pacific R R 
dogs he turned to fight and was shot. Hank His name appears on the honor roll of ' St 
had been bitten 33 times and the bear was | Mark's Episcopal Church Chevenne and 
shot high up on the shoulder. I am sure I Memorial Cross, Laramie, and Jn the 
this was the most tragic death that any man ."Bronze Memorial Tablet" in the corridor 
ever met with a bear, and he an old bear : of the State House in Cheyenne. Mrs Bond 
hunter. Hank was one of our best men, he took an active part in the organization' of the 
was the sou of honor and I am glad that his , first American Legion Auxiliary unit in 
name is to be recorded with the early Wyo- Wyoming at Buffalo in January of 1920 
ming History. The bear was the biggest | holding the office of Vice and Acting Presi- 
bear ever seen in the Black Hills. His hide dent during that vear. During 19?3-1924 she 
was stuffed and measured a little over 9 feet. ; served as chairman of the State Executive 
It was exhibited at the fair at Omaha." Board and was always keenly, interested in 

MISS ELIZABETH SPAETH. | any plan for the aid and comfort of the ex- 
service man. She was a member of the 
'Friends in Council," the oldest Study Club 


known McLean family of Indiana. 

tion. Mrs. Bond spoke with much pride of 

The only daughter in a household of boys J?L£ V ° "£ °™ry ancestor. Daniel McLean, 

she had unusual social and educational ad- ' L S T'l ^TfJ^^ 

vantages which helped to develop in her the J ",! ^ In January of 1921 Mrs. 

qualities of mind and heart that contributed 5 °" Vstoric £ S J ™ ^ ^ a T ni £ atlon 

to her vivid and attractive personality. ! r * tl h t \% T" aS the J ohns ? n 

^ In her early twenties she was married to C ° Unty ,St ° nCal SoCiety ' 
Fred Bond, also a native 
ike lure of the West ana v 

jther T?«nt h a H 3 lrp a Hv »ct,Ki;ct, j ti,« m ! ec . te 9- .during 19Z3 Mrs. Bonds health 

serving as its 

a ive owan who haH fel° ^ eta ^ Th ™ u g" her efforts a large num 

st and who w th wf twin ^ r ° f valuable " ecords and relics were col 
si ana \\ no witn nis twin \ ^^ a t^,,.-;.,™. irm u t-> i» i < . 

brother Frank had already established them- f^wi' u e .^ t 

selves in surveying and engineering circles KuS °Sf™ indicated and the 

in Wyoming , ow altltude of California was trrJ with 

mi , j ^i • i little success. During her soiourn »rp chn 

The young couple made their home in i^j f r, Q „i ooe „ M f 8 '• ^J 01101 re snr 

r*u j i j .i • n ad the pleasure of meeting manv r irienrU 

Chevenne and numbered among their many „„j „,„i • I s , y \ 1 ™' 1Gj 

x- ■ j ,i . P . ,■' and making new ones, but she lono-prl to 

friends those whose names figure in the ,-„+„,.„ + ^ w JT- % u j 10il fe eu lo 

|r ?W th and upbuiiding of the S !ate Whih , f^ "c&oK T h*' iSf bVuS "IS 

K Wa^TveS ^Ke e n „et b h 0r wU ! ;rchc;i,'° reSl ,h b ^ de f ""ftS* " d 4 
liamson Cheyenne, with Dean Samuel West, an old 

t 1001 a/t « j 11 j . d rx , ,and valued friend, officiating. Pall bearers 

In 189, Mr. Bond was called to Buffalo \ consisting of old friends of the family With 
to act as Engineer in the construction of the i the passing of Mrs. Bond, Wyoming has lost 
city water system and being favorably mi- ! a valuable citizen, one who ever haH the wel- 
pressed with the northern counties of Wyo- | f are of the community in which she lived at 
ming, he removed his family to Buffalo { heart. 

where they resided for several years. Mrs. 
Bond was an active worker in St. Luke's 
Church and Sunday School where the foun- 
dation was laid for many staunch friends in 



later years. It was at this time that the j (By J. C. Kennedy, C. E. E. M., Saratoga 

third son, Fred Avery, was born. Mr. Bond 


returned to Cheyenne to assume the duties The Sierra Madre system of mountains 
ot State Engineer, was stricken and died of j extending from Tierra'Del Fuego to Cape 
tv P h ° ld iu Ver in 1903 during his term of Barrow on the Arctic seas, and embracing 
office. The support of the family falling ! not onlv the continental divides of two con 
upon the widow, Airs. Bond fitted herself for tinents, but numerous branch, auxiliary and 
the position of State Librarian, to which she j parallel ranges, forms the longest and" most 
brought the ability and energy which contri- j important mineral zone on this round earth 
buted largely to the high efficiency of that | f ours; most important not onlv in the pro- 
institution. For a brief period while her i duction of the precious and nobler metals but 
older sons were in business in Newcastle. , the commoner metals as well The metals 
Mrs. Bond made her home in that town. In both common and precious, by great odds' 

the spring of 1917 Mrs. Bond came to Buf 
falo as Librarian of the Johnson County 

have been the most important factors in the 
development of the human race which can be 

Library. She had the fullest confidence of j named. Without them we would still be in 
the Board and the respect and admiration this year 1903, no farther advanced in condi- 

of the patrons whom she delighted to serve 
Under her direction the Library has won 

tion than that of the primitive cave man. 
It is fortunate for the future of Wyoming 

much favorable comment for its up-to-date that this svstem of "mountains traverses the 
equipment and competent management. Mrs. State; for there are such large areas in this 

Bond had two sons in war service, Kenneth 

as well as other states west of the 100th 

W., who served in the Engineer Corps, A. j Meridian, which can never be brought und-r 
E. F., and Fred A., who was killed while cultivation, that, were it not for the metals, 


metallic earths, minerals and salts within its 
borders, it could never rank as high in the 
production of wealth as her sister states in 
the East, notwithstanding her great area. 

From a point toward the west side line of 
Carbon County to a point in southern Fre- 
mont County, the uplift which produced the 
Rocky Mountains has not been pronounced 
enough to lift the igneous and primary rocks 
through the burden of the sedimentary rocks 
which originally covered the greater part of 
the West. In this section, other than at iso- 
lated points, it will be useless to look for 
metallic ores; but outside of this limited por- 
tion of the Continental Divide, the conditions 
are equally as favorable as in Colorado on 
the south and Montana on the north. 

The State Geologist has given this conven- 
tion a comprehensive review of the mines, 
the minerals and the mining development 
of the State. In this brief paper the writer 
will confine himself to one metal, copper, 
and to one locality of its existence of many 
in the State, viz., Carbon County. 

As indicated in a preceding paragraph the 
high portion of the Sierra Madre system ter- 
minates toward the western border of Car- 
bon County. From the southern boundary 
of the County and of the State to this point 
of termination, the existing conditions for 
the deposition of metallic ores are ideal, and 
are the same as in Colorado to the south. 
We have the granitoid rocks, the granites, 
gneisses and syenites, flanked by the Al- 
gonkian schists, the Cambrian quartzites, the 
Silurian limestones, all cut and torn at dif- 
ferent points by eruptive dykes of diorite, 
amygdaloidal diabase and other porphyritic 
rocks. Some of these dykes are very per- 
sistent and extend for miles. These forma- 
tions are the homes of the precious and other 

In the last two years nearly all the cop- 
per ores known have been found in this sec- 
tion — native copper, the oxides, the carbon- 
ates and the sulphides. Nearly a complete 
collection of the copper minerals can be made 
in this region. This collection would contain 
native copper, cuprite, melaconite, melachite, 
azurite, bornite, covellite, marcasite, chal- 
copyrite, chalcocite and crysocolla. 

One remarkable and almost universal fea- 
ture of the district is that when enough work 
has been done to disclose a permanent vein 
with continuous ore streak, the percentage of 
copper has been unusually high, rarely falling 
below 30 per cent, which is nearly typical 
percentage of pure chalcopyrite, while consid- 
erable masses of black oxide and copper 
glance run from 50 to 65 per cent. 

As is known to some of you the Medicine 
Bow range diverges sharply from the main 
Sierra Madre range at the S. E. corner of 
North Park, Colorado, where the North 
Platte River leaves the Park at the south 
line of Wyoming, these ranges approach each 
other and immediately diverge again — the 
Sierra Madre extending northwesterly and 
the Medicine Bow in a northerly direction. 
The copper belt is spread like a blanket on 

both sides of the Continental Divide, and ex- 
tends for 65 miles along the range to the 
outlet of North Park where swinging across 
the valley it extends northerly along the 
western slope of the Medicine Bow for a dis- 
tance of 50 miles more— a total length of 
115 miles. 

What is now generally known as the 
Grand Encampment mining district embraces 
what are known locally as the Battle, the 
Bridger, the Beaver Creek, the Pearl and the 
North Platte mining districts. The incep- 
tion of extended prospecting and develop- 
ment in this region is somewhat peculiar, and 
illustrates the fact that men often build bet- 
ter than they know, and that ephemeral 
movements, undertaken from purely selfish 
motives by a few men, with little thought 
of the future, have often times grown into 
extensive operations of the most important 
and beneficent character. 

In the later 70's, Al Huston, one of the 
earliest settlers on Cow Creek in Carbon 
County, and a noted hunter, trail-maker and 
guide discovered gold in the Purgatory re- 
gion, six miles south of the present town of 
Encampment. In 1895, he located a lead 
which showed at the surface a large amount 
of free gold, calling it the Golden Eagle. The 
following year this came to the notice of two 
or three outside gentlemen, who in connec- 
tion with gentlemen in Rawlins in the latter 
part of 1896 staked out the town of Encamp- 
ment. They enlisted the services of a news- 
paper correspondent who was more or less 
on his "uppers," but who possessed a facile 
pen and a picturesque vocabulary. He pro- 
ceeded to flood the country with the most 
startling accounts of gold and other discov- 
eries, of stage coach accidents and other 
mythical occurrances, keeping the name 
Grand Encampment constantly before the 
public. The object was to boom the section 
as a gold region and sell lots. The writer 
does not believe that the promoters knew of 
the previous copper discoveries in the region. 
If they did, they cared little for them, as the 
red metal at that time did not hold so pro- 
minent a place in the metal markets of the 

However, 22 years and 16 years before the 
date of the Purgatory excitement, George 
Doane, who had previously been in the min- 
ing camps of Leadville and Aspen, located 
the Rambler lode near the shore of Battle 
Lake, 16 miles west of Encampment, a lode 
which is destined to become one of the 
heaviest producers in the district. But others 
had been there before Doane. He found 
trenches and shallow shafts on the Rambler 
vein, and at least two old chains near by, one 
of which was provided with loop-holes for 
defense. Similar trenches, pits and shafts 
then existed on the other copper leads along 
the range to the northwest toward the Rude- 

As long ago as 1879, at least, many cop- 
per leads were discovered along the Medicine 
Bow range on the east side of the North 
Platte Valley. It is for copper that Carbon 
County is to be renowned all over the world, 
thouch there will be in time a considerable 


production of gold, silver and lead, not to 
mention coal and oil. 

In a paper of this kind the best thing 
which could possibly be given would be ac- 
curate figures of actual production. The wri- 
ter regrets that these cannot be given com- 
plete. Those that have them in the case 
of each particular mine or prospect will not 
produce them. The State Geologist, who 
should have them, cannot get them under 
the present law. The best thing that can be 
done is, from some .familiarity with the dis- 
trict, to give as close an approximation as 
possible. The Rudefeha has shipped in round 
numbers $500,000 worth of ore. This ran in 
carload lots from 23 to 34 per cent in metal- 
Vc copper. There are about 10,000 tons of 
ore on the dump which can be run over the 
tramway to the Encampment smelter, con- 
centrated and smelted at a profit. During the 
past year a tunnel started on the adjacent 
osceola ground has cut the Rudefeha vein 
at a point 356 feet below the collar of the 
main shaft. The vein at this depth is wider 
and of the same grade as that in the bottom 
of the old workings. The amount of un- 
stoped ore between the tunnel level and the 
sunace is immense and estimated to be of 
the value of $1,000,000. The lateral extent 
oi.^fie vein or ore chute has not been deter- 
mined; but enough can be seen to prove 
that this is to be one of the greatest copper 
producers of the world. 

1 he Doane Rambler has shipped, all told, 
about 60 carloads of ore. The last twelve 
carloads, shipped by the company which now 
owns it, averaged 40 to 70 per cent of metallic 
copper. The average value per ton was 
$^/.68, the average gross value per car was 
$2,008.45, the average net value per car was 
$1,849.75, and the net value of the twelve 
cars was $22,197.03. A car shipped to the 
State Ore Sampling Company, Denver on 
December 31st, 1900, gave the following re- 
sults: Percentage of copper 51.23 per cent, 
value per ton $123.42, gross value of car 
$2,359.36, and net .value of car $1,981.27. 

Some of these 12 cars of ore as well as 
most of that previously shipped by Doane 
yielded from 51 to 52 per cent copper. A 
prominent mining engineer has estimated the 
Rambler dump to contain $120,000 worth of 
copper. A large amount of ore is blocked 
out which carries from 12 to 26 per cent of 

The Kurtz-Chatterton, located many years 
before the name. Encampment was known to 
the world, shipped a carload of ore in 1891, 
and 200 tons of concentrates to the Encamp- 
ment smelter since its erection. 

The Charter Oak near Calf Creek, the 
Evening Star on Beaver Creek and the so- 
called "Cox Mine" near the mouth of Big 
Creek, have shipped one car each of copper 
ore. The ore from the Evening Star and the 
Cox, was of very high grade, the latter con- 
sisting mainly of copper glance. 

For the past one and a half years no ore 
has been shipped to outside smetlers; but at 
least 70 prospects or mines in the district 
are prepared to send more or less ore to 
the enlarged Encampment smelter when it is 
readv to "blow in" the second time. The 

writer takes a most conservative view of 
all mines and prospects. Furthermore he does 
not own a single copper claim in the State 
of Wyoming. He is not a prophet or the 
son of a prophet; but he will hazard the 
prediction that at least 30 of the claims al- 
ready located will become mines of consid- 
erable production. 

The most intelligent prospecting has not 
yet been done. The prospecting of the fu- 
ture which is to disclose the large ore bodies 
at present unknown is to be underground 
and not on the surface. 

Besides the prospects and mines alreadv 
mentioned, those which are very promising 
are the Syndicate, Eeighton-Gentry, Copper 
Queen, Osceola, Copper Belt, Paris, Has- 
kms Continental, Blackfoot, Buelah, Hag- 
garty-Jordan, Portland, Hercules, Gertrude, 
Hidden Treasure, Keener-Price, Verde, Corn- 
stock, Great Lakes and Moon Anchor; the 
Aetna, Newsboy Beaver, Kearns, and others 
in the Beaver Creek section; the Mt. Zirkel, 
Coldwater, Big Creek, Big Horn, Tully and 
others in the Pearl section, the Dewey and 
Elk Mt. in the Medicine Bow range, and 
others in the whole copper belt. 

In this connection it is proper to mention 
the now famous New Rambler. While in the 
southwestern part of Albany County, 3 miles 
from the Carbon County line, it "is never- 
theless in the North Platte drainage area, 
and 17 miles nearer Encampment than Lara- 
mie. The enteprising people of the latter citv 
have received and deserve most of the bene- 
fits from the output of this mine; but 2,000 
tons of its ore have gone to the Encamp- 
ment smelter and have been converted to 
high grade matter. 

Several prospects near the Rambler, in the 
Douglas Creek district, are coming into pro- 
minence as producers of copper ore. A pe- 
culiar feature of the ores of the Rambler 
and other prospects of that section is that 
they carry the metal platinum in commercial 
quantities, this being one of but three or 
four places in the world where platinum is 
found in place as the constituent of an ore. 

In this connection also, I will mention that 
there are three or four other copper fields 
in Carbon County, viz., near the uplifts im- 
mediately N. W. of Rawlins, in the Seminoe 
Mountains N. E. of Rawlins, and in the Shir- 
ley Mountains and Freezeout Hills, stretch- 
ing easterly from the North Platte Cano.i 
in the N. E. part of the County. In these 
localities, the copper ore occurs mainly in 
the Carboniferous limestones, flanking the 
primitive rocks which form the core of these 

The main development in the copper belt 
of southern Carbon County has occurred 
during the past two years. During this time 
the stage road from Walcott to Encamp- 
ment has been lined with teams loaded with 
tons upon tons of mining machinery, mining 
supplies and goods for Encampment and 
other mining towns, until at the present 
time there is more freight loaded on to wag- 
ons at the little station of Walcott than from 
any other station across Wyoming, from 
Cheyenne to Evanston. both included. The 
district has now 43 steam hoisting and pump- 


ing plants. Including the new Rambler it 
has two smelters, four concentrators, two 
stamp mills and a 16-mile aerial tramway. 
The tramway cost $350,000, the Encampment 
smelter, roaster, and converter and briquet- 
ting machine more than $257,000, the 500-ton 
concentrating plant, $110,000 and the power 
plant, dam, and power house $125,000. 

From Coutant Collection. 

Historian's Note. At this point the man- 
uscript ends. The abrupt end leads to the 
conclusion that the manuscript is an unfin- 
ished one or else the remaining text has been 


(By Emma J. Dobbins) 

In 1869 Col. A. J. Meyers, head of the 
United States Signal Service, suggested a 
scheme of weather reports and signals, which 
was not carried out until February 9, 1870, 
when Congress approved the plan. A num- 
ber of young men were instructed at Ft. 
Meyer, Va., and later seventeen of them 
were sent out to establish weather stations 
at various points throughout the country. 

To Asa C. Dobbins was assigned the sta- 
tion at Cheyenne, Wymoing Territory, then 
a little frontier town on the Union Pacific 
raliroad, but located high upon a plateau of 
the Rocky Mountains, at an elevation of 
over six thousand feet. Mr. Dobbins arrived 
October 15th, 1870, and made the first obser- 
vation November 1st, 1870. 

He opened the office in a frame building at 
the corner of Sixteenth and Hill streets (now 
Capitol Avenue). The lower floor was oc- 
cupied by the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, and on the upper floor the wea- 
ther station was established. The equipment 
consisted of the following instruments; a 
barometer, maximum and minimum ther- 
mometers, wet and dry bulb, rain gauge, 
and anemometer to record the velocity of 
the wind; there was also a large wind vane 
erected on the roof, with connections coming 
down through the roof and united to a piv- 
oted arrow, swinging in a circular plane, 
marked with the cardinal points of the com- 
pass, which was attached to the ceiling. The 
shifting arrow swinging from one point to 
another, indicated the direction from whence 
the wind was blowing. 

The furnishings of the office consisted of 
a desk, office chair, two common chairs, a 
cot, washstand, a stove and a clock. This 
constituted the Sergeant's office and home. 
At first, the Weather Bureau was under the 
Army and Navy regulations — thus we have 
the "Sergeant." The office and the observer 
were regarded as a sort of a joke and Mr. 
Dobbins" was dubbed "the Weather Clerk," 
and, of course, was blamed for all weather 
not pleasing to the individual. 

On February 20, 1872, the bureau or office 
was moved to the corner of 16th and Fer- 
guson Streets (how Carey Avenue). June 
20th, 1874, the residence of Sergeant Dob- 
bins, located on the south side of 17th Street, 

between Ransom and Dodge (Central and 
Warren) became the official headquarters of 
the weather bureau, where it remained until 
December, 1883. The next move was to the 
Commercial block, 218^ West 16th Street. 
This building is the property of Senator F. 
E- Warren, and fhe office remained in this 
building just twenty years, when it was 
moved to its present location in the Citizens 
Bank building. 

During the time the office was situated at 
the corner of 16th and Carey Avenue, it 
was inspected by Lieut. A. W. Greely, who 
afterwards became Chief Signal Officer, and 
later conducted the ill-fated expedition to the 
North Pole. In 1881, Mr. Dobbins was de- 
tailed by the United States Government to 
accompany Professor Langley on a scientific 
expedition to Mount Whitney, California, as 
meteorologist to the party of scientific re- 

The writer, when visiting the weather of- 
fice recently, was struck with the contrast 
between the first office with its crude fur- 
nishings and that of the present one. Hand- 
some rugs, massive furniture of elegant sim- 
plicity, modern appliances greeted the eye of 
the beholder as she surveyed the four rooms 
of the department. 

Mr. George W. Pitman, the present effi- 
cient weather director, very courteously ex- 
plained the improved instruments and meth- 
ods in present use; also produced several of 
the old records. Observational work is simi- 
lar to years ago, except automatic instru- 
ments made through the application of elec- 
tricity has lessened the work of keeping hour- 
ly records of sunshine, wind direction, wind 
velocity, and precipitation. The old records, 
however, are carefully protected, and, we are 
told, their value is more apparent as time ' 
goes on, in the way of establishing laws, that 
govern the future weather changes in this 
locality. The Cheyenne office is headquar- 
ters for the state and there are eighty-two 
sub-stations under Mr. Pitman's jurisdiction. 
His office force consist of three assistants 
and a messenger. Daily forecasts (except 
Sunday) are now telegraphed to Lusk, Doug- 
las, Cody, Thermopolis, Rawlins, Evanston, 
Pocotella, Sheridan, Newcastle, Torrington 
and Lander. The only broadcasting station 
is at Sheridan. 

For years, the United States Weather Bur- 
eau has exchanged daily reports by telegraph 
with Mexico and Canada, while all the other 
countries of Europe exchange with one an- 
other in the same way. Our weather bur- 
eau also inaugurated the experiment of mak- 
ing a daily telegraphic weather chart of the 
Northern Hemisphere. This chart has now 
become indispensable to the forecaster. Re- 
cently a similar chart has been made every 
day at Toronto by the Canadian meteoro- 

Fewer foolish questions are asked at the 
weather office now than formerly, and the 
information depended upon. This is due pro- 
bably because forecasts are now based upon 
scientific knowledge. The autoist inquires 
the weather conditions before taking a long 
trip, pleasure seekero concult the office be- 


fore planning picnics, the farmer turns al- 
most daily for advice concerning his crops 
to the forecasts, and so it goes. The wea- 
ther forecaster is no longer a joke, but is 
champion of thousands of business men. 

Since Mr. Dobbins' regime, there have 
been twenty men in charge of the local office, 
including Mr. Pitman. So time speeds on, 
and as I looked at the clock in the weather 
office and heard it tick, I thought of the 
OLD clock that ticked off the seconds in 
the first weather office. The only relic of 
that time is still ticking merrily away as I 
write, after fifty-four years of constant ser- 

"Tic Toe, old Clock, 
What are you saying now?" 


(State Historian) 
That interest in Wyoming History is not 
dormant is manifested by the number of 
clubs and various organizations which are 
now featuring the study of local Wyoming 
History. In some counties the work is func- 
tioning through old Settlers Associations and 
in others through departments in the various 
qjganized groups of worker; while in still 
otners the history is collected and preserved 
by an organized County Historical Society. 
Of these societies quite the largest and the 
most far-reaching in its scope for activity is 
the recentl yincorporated "Natrona County 
Historical Society." Natrona County lies in 
a district rich in historic lore. With a society 
having a well defined object, a large and en- 
thusiastic membership of pioneers and stud- 
ents of history, one feels confident that much 
hitherto unpublished history will eminate 
from this society. 

John Hunton Collection 

This valuable collection which is a recent 
gift to the State Historical Department from 
Mr. Hunton consists of two leaflets and 
sixty-five original documents. The leaflet 
"Regulations Concerning the Granting of 
License to Trade with the Indians," was is- 
sued by the War Department in 1847 and 
signed by W. L- Marcy, Secretary of War. 

In 1859 the War Department issued "Gen- 
eral Orders Number 7" which was published 
for the information and government of the 
Sutlers at Army Posts. Signed by S. Coop- 
er, Adjutant General. 

There are articles of agreement in this col- 
lection between "Ward and Guerrier" of the 
first part and "Gerry and Bordeaux" of the 
second part for the Indian trade in 1856. 
This agreement stipulates prices to be paid 
|for Buffalo Robes, Beaver Skins, Wolf Skins 
and other commodities incident to the In- 
dian trade. 

The upper Platte Agency Indian trade, 
embraced the "South Fork of the Platte 
River and Arkansas River with the Arapahoe 
md Cheyenne Indians and White River and 
^and Hills with a band of Sioux known 
is the Brule and Osage Indians." 

There is a letter which fixes the date of 
he building of the Platte Bridge. 

A memoranda is signed by J. L. Grattan. 
Lieutenant Grattan was a victim in the 
Grattan Massacre. 

At Fort Laramie in 1855 Joseph Mari- 
vale collects Joseph Vilandry's note for 

Joseph Merivale, Nick Janis, John Rich- 
ard (Reshaw) and Joseph Bissonette, all 
these men signed with an X. (Bissonette 
accompanied Stansbury on the latter's ex- 
ploring expedition to Salt Lake in 1852). 

John M. Hockaday and Company, by N. 
D. Van Eps, gave "due bills" for services 
rendered at Amanda Station on the dates 
June 22nd, 23rd, 1859, and the "Last Will 
and Testament of Elbridge Gerry (1854," 
and the signatures of Jules Ecoffy, and 
Adolph Cuny are to be found in these rec- 

In August, 1859 Mr. Jefferson Hunt left 
a mule with "Hiram Lightner, mail agent at 
Fort Laramie," and on the same date we read 
"Received Fort Laramie August 26th, 1859 
of Jefferson Hunt one Mare Mule Branded 
with mule shoe and lame in right hind leg. 
Russells, Majors and Waddell, By Hiram 

! Lighter." And on December 29th, 1859 Mr. 

| Hunt requests the mail agent "to deliver the 
mule to bearer of the order, "Private Robert 

I Foot, Co. F. 2" Dragoons left one check for 
one thousand ($1,000) dollars favor of S. E. 

j Ward and Company or order dated, Fort 
Kearney, N. T., 6th April 1860. 

| Reverend A. Wright, Post Chaplain at 

I Fort D. A. Russell on March 27th, 1871, 
writes to his friend Mr. W. G. Bullock; and 
Mr. Bullock receives another letter signed by 
Robert Campbell; but perhaps of the great- 
est intrinsic value in the entire collection is 
a "Commission" to administer oaths, etc.," 
granted to Seth E. Ward on the 28th day 
of April 1856 and signed by Sterling Price, 
Governor of Missouri, and sealed with the 
Great Seal of the State of Missouri. Ster- 
ling Price afterwards became a distinguished 
Major General in the Confederate Army. 
^ On August 24th, 1859 Private Frank H. 
Schaeffer receives his honorable discharge 
from the U. S. Army. One wonders what 
became of this young German with "fair 
complexion and blue eyes" who, at the age 
of 23, enlisted in the service of our country, 
and if his parents ever knew that after five 
years of service he left the army for re-enlist- 
ment with "character good." 

There are other items in this collection as 
fascinating and as valuable for research work 
to the student of history as those we have 
enumerated. But these to which attention 
is directed, will suffice to show how the 
wealth of the State Historical Department 
has been enhanced by this generous gift from 
Mr. John Hunton. This contribution alone 
would establish Mr. Hunton as one who 
knows historical values, but Mr. Hunton 
needs no introduction to the citizens of Wyo- 
ming, as it is well-known that he has lived 
continuously in Wyoming since 1867. His 
knowledge of the history of Territory and 
State is intimate and his statements are au- 


The long expected "Life of James Bridger" 
by J. Cecil Alter, has appeared. The book 
is by far the most pretentious biography of 
Bridger which has ever been published. The 
author treats his subject with understanding 
and sympathy and fortifies his statements 
v ith a long bibliography and the book has a 
very comprehensive index. This is history 
told with all the charm of the storv book. 


With this issue of the Historical Quarterly 
Bulletin the second volume closes. Volume 
3 of the Bulletin will begin with the July 
number and the name will be changed to 
"Annals of Wyoming." 

The Annals will be published with a cover, 
the quality of the paper will be better, the 
type will be more readable, there will be one, 
and possibly two illustrations and twenty^ 
eight pages of history. 

The Bulletin was issued primarily for 
source material only and as such, the "An- 
nals" will be continued. There is a wealth 
of history in our State which should be col- 
lected and put in permanent form while we 
have with us those strong characters — men 
and women who cantell us by what effort 
and at what cost they made this great com- 
monwealth. We owe it to them that the story 
of their deeds shall be perpetuated, and we 
owe it to the citizens of the present and the 
future that they shall be made acquainted 
with the annals of their State and thereby 
gain inspiration for their own lives, and an 
appreciation of their heritage. In the past 
eighteen months we have collected some 
valuable source material which has never 
been published and there are a number of 
manuscripts now in process of completion. 
It is our intention to publish this history as 
rapidly as possible and to increase the size 
of the "Annals" as our funds will permit. 

The publications of the Department are 
paid for out of the State Historian's Conting- 
ent fund. The appropriation of the Eight- 
eenth legislature left the Department in the 
same financial difficulty as that of the bien- 
nium just closed, that is, without sufficient 
funds to carry on the work of the Depart- 
ment as prescribed by law. It therefore be- 
comes necessary to make a change in the 
policy of the "Annals": either the circulation 
must be decreased or membership in the 
State Historical Society must be increased. 
Membership is open to anyone. The annual 
dues are one dollar ($1.00) paid in advance, 
and all publications of the Department are 
sent to members for the year without further 
assessments. Notice of delinquency will be 
sent from the Department. Beginning with 
Volume 3 (July number) the "Annals" will 
be sent only to members of the Society, the 
Historical Board, the Advisory Board and 
the exchanges. Attention is called to the 
membership roll and to the exchange lists 
to be found elsewhere in this issue. It is 
hoped that all readers of the Bulletin will 
recognize the need of a large membership 
in the State Historical Society and respond 
by sending one dollar ($1.00) to the Wyo- 
ming State Historical Society in time to 

receive your July number and keep your file; 
complete. Furthermore, an early response! 
will assist the State Historian in estimating 
how large an edition will need to be issuec 
for July. 

State Historian. 

The Wyoming Historical Quarterly Bulle- 
tin exchanges with the following Histori- 
cal Societies and Institutions of Learning: 

American Historical Association, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Arizona Pioneer Historical Society, Phoe- 
nix, Arizona. 

Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, 

New London County Historical Society, 
New London, Conn. 

State Historical Society of Colorado, Den- 
ver, Colorado. 

University of California Library, Berke- 
ley, California. 

California State Library, Sacremento, Cali- 

California Historic-Genealogical Society. 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Colburn Library, Colorado College, Color- 
ado Springs, Colo. 

State Historical Society, Boise, Idaho. 

Historical Department of Iowa, Iowa City, 

State Historical Society of Iowa, Des 
Moines, Iowa. 

Northern Indiana Historical Society, South 
Bend, Indiana. 

State Historical Society of Illinois, Spring- 
field, Illinois. 

Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, 

Kentucky State Historical Society, Lex- 
ington, Kentucky. 

Old Time New England, 2 Lynde Street, 
Boston, Mass. 

Lynn Historical Society, Lynn, Mass. 

Michigan Historical Commission, Lansing, 

Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, 

State Historical Society of Missouri, Col- 
umbia, Mo. 

Missouri Historical Society, Jefferson Me- 
morial, St. Louis, Mo. 

State of Montana Historical Library, Hel- 
ena, Montana. 

Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, 

Louisiana Historical Society, New Orleans, 

Nevada Historical Society, Carson City, 

University of the State of New York, Al- 
bany, New York. 

New York Historical Society, 170 Central 
Park West, New York City. 

New York Public Library, New York. 

New Hampshire Historical Society, Con- 
cord, New Hampshire. 

Historical Society of New Mexico, Santa 
Fe, New Mexico. 

North Dakota Historical Collections, Bis- 
mark, North Dakota. 


Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma 
City, Oklahoma. 

Oregon Historical Society, Portland, Ore- 

Onondago Historical Association, Syra- 
:use, N. Y. 

Free Library of Philadelphia, Dept. of 
Documents, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wyoming Historical & Geography Society, 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

South Dakota Historical Collections, 
Pierre, South Dakota. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. 

Rice Institute, Houston, Texas. 

Tennessee Historical Commission, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. 

State Dept. of Archives & History, Char- 
leston, W. Virginia. 

Vermont Historical Society, Montpelier, 

Texas State Library, Austin, Texas. 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 

Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. 

New Jersey Historical Societv, Newark, 

■•^South Carolina Historical Society, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Historical Society of Delaware, Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. 

Historical Society of Florida, St. Augus- 
tine, Florida. 

Washington State Historical Society, Ta- 
:0111a, Washington. 

Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, 

Rhode Island Historical Society, Provid- 
:lence, Rhode Island. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

North Carolina Historical Society, Ral- 
egh, N. C. 

Maine Historical Society, Portland, 

Alabama Historical Society, Tuscaloosa, 

Dept. of Archives & History, Atlanta, 

District Forester, Forest Service Build- 
ing, Ogden, Utah. 

The following newspapers are on file in this 

office and the Bulletins are sent to each in 


Big Horn County Rustler, Basin, Wyo- 

Big Piney Examiner, Big Piney, Wyoming. 

Buffalo Bulletin, Buffalo, Wyoming. 

Buffalo Voice, Buffalo, Wyoming. 
Burns Herald, Burns, Wyoming. 

Casper Daily Tribune, Casper, Wyoming. . 

Casper Daily Herald, Casper, Wyoming. 

Inland Oil Index, Casper, Wyoming. 

Wyoming State Tribune, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

Park County Herald, Cody, Wyoming. 

Colony News, Colon}', Wyoming. 

Cowley Progress, Cowley, Wyoming. 

Douglas Budget, Douglas, Wyoming. 

Douglas Enterprise, Douglas, Wyoming. 
Wyoming Labor Journal, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

Wyoming Stockman-Farmer, Cheyenne, 

The Wyoming Times, Evanston, Wyo- 

Campbell County Record, Gillette, Wyo- 

Gillette News, Gillette, Wyoming. 

Glendo Pioneer, Glendo, Wyoming. 

Glenrock Gazette, Glenrock, Wyoming. 

Glenrock Independent, Glenrock, Wyo- 

Greybull Standard, Greybull, Wyoming. 

Guernsey Gazette, Guernsey, Wyoming. 

Jackson Hole Courier, Jackson, Wyoming. 

Hillsdale Review, Hillsdale, Wyoming. 

Kemmerer Gazette, Kemmerer, Wyoming. 

Wyoming State Journal, Lander, Wyo- 

Laramie Republican-Boomerang, Laramie, 
Wyoming (daily). 

Laramie Republican-Boomerang, Laramie, 
Wyoming (semi-weekly). 

Lightening Flat Flash, Lightening Flat, 

The Lingle News, Lingle, Wyoming. 

Lost Springs Times, Lost Springs, Wyo- 

Lusk Herald, Lusk, Wyoming. 

Moorcroft Leader, Moorcroft, Wyoming. 

The News Letter, Newcastle, Wyoming. 

Pinedale Roundup, Pinedale, Wyoming. 

Pine Bluffs Post, Pine Bluffs, Wyoming. 

Powell Tribune, Powell, Wyoming. 

Rawlins Republican, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

Riverton Review, Riverton, Wyoming. 

Rock River Review, Rock River, Wyo- 

Rock Springs Rocket, Rock Springs, 

Saratoga Sun, Saratoga, Wyoming. 

Thermopolis Independent, Thermopolis, 

Torrington Telegram, Torrington, Wyo- 

Weston County Gazette, Upton, Wyoming. 

Wheatland Times, Wheatland, Wyoming. 

Worland Grit, Worland, Wyoming. 

The Homesteader, Wright, Wyoming. 

The following magazines are also ex- 

Midwest Review, Casper, Wyoming. 

Union Pacific Coal Company, Rock 
Springs, Wyoming. 

Union Pacific Magazine, Omaha, Neb. 

Wyoming Churchman, Laramie, Wyoming. 

Stanolind Record, Casper, Wyoming. 

Wyoming Roads, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Erie Railroad Magazine, New York. 

National Republican, Washington, D. C. 

The Rocky Mountain Herald, Denver, 

Members of the Wyoming State Historical 

1. Mr. Pay son W. Spaulding, Evanston, 

2. Mr. M. S. Garretson, New York City, 
N. Y. 

3. Mr. Alfred Williams, Wheatland, Wyo- 


4. Mr. E. A. Brininstool, Los Angeles, 

5. Mr. Charles Ely Adams, Spokane, 

6. Mr. Edmund Sevmour, New York City, 
N. Y. 

7. Mr. David Wray, Medicine Bow, Wyo- 

8. Mr. F. A. Hadsell, Rawlins, Wyoming. 

9. Mr. I. N. Connes, Saratoga, Wyoming. 

10. Mrs. J. L. West, Evanston, Wyoming. 

11. Mrs. W. H. Hamilton, Evanston, Wyo- 

12. Mrs. L. E. Fosmer, Evanston, Wyo- 

13. Mrs. B. F. Tedmon Jr., Wheatland, 

14. Mrs. Mary L. Rennie, Evanston, Wyo- 

15. Mr. J. T. Arnold, Attica, New York. 

16. Mr. Wm. C. Snow, Basin, Wyoming. 

17. Bishop N. S. Thomas, Laramie, Wyo- 

18. Mrs. N. S. Thomas, Laramie, Wyo- 

19. Mr. Douglas Fuller, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

20. Dr. G. R. Hebard, Laramie, Wyoming. 

21. Miss Alice Hebard, Laramie, Wyo- 

22. Mr. Arthur J. Dickson, Dayton, Wyo- 

23. Mr. E. R. Breisch, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

24. Mrs. J. C. Van Dyke, Buffalo, Wyo- 

25. Miss Edith K. O. Clark, Cheyenne, 

26. Judge M. C. Brown, Laramie, Wyo- 

27. Mr. James Dickie, Thermopolis, Wyo- 

28. Mrs. Anna Peake, Cody, Wyoming. 
29. Mr. S. A. Eldred, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

30. Mr. A. C. Newton, Cody, Wyoming. 

31. Mr. C. A. Marston, Cody, Wyoming. 

32. Mr. L. L. Newton, Lander, Wyoming. 

33. Mr. C. E. Hayden, Cody, Wyoming. 

34. Mr. Frank Rue, Cody, Wyoming. 

35. Mr. Warren Reid, Codv, Wyoming. 

36. Mr. R. C. Hargrave, Cody, Wyo. 

37. Miss Marjory Ross, Cody, Wyoming. 

38. Mrs. 1. H. Burgess, Sheridan, Wyo. 

39. Mrs. C. E. Ellis, Difficulty, Wyoming. 

40. Mr. Mark Chapman, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

41. Mr. Albert Chapman, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

42. Mr. Dan Rees, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

43. Mr. J. A. Shaw, Binford, Wyoming. 

44. Mr. A. D. Faville, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

45. Mr. E. T. Bartley, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

46. Mr. W. R. Dubois, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

47. Mr. A. R. Smith, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

48. Mr. W. F. Melvin, Casper, Wyoming. 

49. Mr. J. W. Skepper, Bird City, Kansas. 

50. Mrs. Marie Montabe Saveresy, Ther- 
mopolis, Wyoming. 

51. Mrs. George S. Smith, Torrington, 

52. Mr. Jesse Brown, Sturgis, South Da- 

53. Mr. W. A. Bonser, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

54. Mr. R. S. Ellison, Casper, Wyoming. 

55. Mr. G. W. Stokes, New York City, 
N. Y. 

56. Mr. Charles W. Chase, Gary, Indiana. 

57. Mr. Charles Blodgett, Marshfield, Wis- 

58. Mr. V. J. Gregory, Minneapolis, Minn. 

59. Mr. Lloyd Gaston Smith, Casper, Wyo- 

60. Mr. W. F. Hoker, New York Citv, 
N. Y. 

61. Mr. John N. Gordon, Novato, Califor- 

62. Mr. Herbert S. Auerbach, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

63. Mr. L. R. A. Condit, Barnum, Wyo- 

64. Mrs. E. L. Emery, Reliance, Wyoming. 

65. Mrs. Laura Kortes, Hanna, Wyoming. 

66. Mrs. Harry G. Lindon, Deaver, Wyo- 

67. Colonel Homer W. Wheeler, Los An- 
geles, California. 

68. Mrs. M. B. Nash, Idaho Falls, Idaho. 

69. Mr. George S. DeWolf, Casper, Wyo- 

70. Miss Marv Kelsev Stone, Charlotte, 
N. C. 

71. Congr. Charles E. Winters, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

72. Mrs. Charles E. Winters, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

73. Mrs. Mary M. Parmalee, Buffalo, 

74. Mrs. Thomas Hunter, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

75. Mr. E. A. Logan, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

76. Mrs. Elizabeth Logan, Cheyenne, 

77. Mrs. Ralph Kimball, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

78. Mrs. A. J. Parshall, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

79. Miss Anna M. Dobbin, Cheyenne, 

80. Mrs. Ruth T. Shepperton, Casper, 
Wyoming (deceased). 

81. Mr. Luther Freeman, Denver, Color- 

82. Mr. I. S. Bartlett, Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming (deceased). 

83. Mr. John A. Martin, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

84. Bishop McGovern, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

85. Mr. J. C. Thompson, Jr., Cheyenne, 

86. Mr. J. J. Underwood, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

87. Mr. C. S. Thomas, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

88. Air. T. Joe Cahill, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

89. Mr. Stephen Bon, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

90. Mrs. Rose L. Bard, Cheyenne, Wyo- 


91. Mr. Charles T. Farthing, Iron Moun- 
tain, Wyoming. 

92. Mr. Ben F. Guy, Chevenne, Wyo- 

93. Mr. W. S. McGuire, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

94. Mr. Oscar J. Lamm, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

95. Mr. Edward Ordway, Sr., Castroville, 

96. Mr. Norman D. King, Albin, Wyo- 

97. Mr. Theodore Wanerus, Gillette, Wyo- 

98. Dr. T. Cassidv, Gillette, Wyoming. 

99. Miss M. E. Spaeth, Gillette, Wyoming. 

100. Mrs. Cyrus Beard, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

101. Captain N. G. Nickerson, Lander, 

102. Mrs. L. C. Harnsberger, Lander, 

103. Mrs. T. G. York, Lander, Wyoming. 

104. Mrs. G. L. Lauder, Laramie, Wyo- 

105. Mr. Josh Dean, Meeteetse, Wyoming. 

106. Mr. Harry E. Cheesman, Sunshine, 

107. Mr. Frank Ingraham, Cody, Wyo- 

108. Mrs. Anna Dodge Staggs, Cody, 

109. Mrs. J. M. Carey, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

110. Mr. Raymond E. Herman, High- 
land Park, Chicago, Illinois. 

111. Mr. C. B. S. Evans, Chicago, Illinois. 

112. Judge C. N. Potter, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

113. Dr. G. L. Strader, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

^114. Mrs. H. B. Patten, Washington, D. 

115. Mr. R. N. La Fontaine, Cheyenne, 

116. Mr. W. E. Chaplin, Long Beach, 

117. Mrs. B. H. McCarthy, Gillette, Wyo- 

118. Mrs. W. R. Fox, Gillette, Wyoming. 

119. Mrs. M. F. Ryan, Gillette, Wyoming. 

120. Mrs. Elizabeth McNish Pickle, Cora. 

121. Miss Ida S. Newell, Casper, Wyo- 

122. Mr. J. Cecil Alter, Salt Lake City, 

123. Mr. J. S. Hunter, Gillette, Wyoming. 

124. Mrs. Mabel C. Boruff, Kansas City, 

125. Mr. J. C. Burnet, Wind River, Wyo- 

126. Mrs. Dora Mertesheimer, Sapulpa, 

127. Miss F,lise Coble, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

128. Mrs. Nannie Steele, Douglas, Wyo- 

129. Mr. D. W. Greenburg, Casper, Wyo- 

130. Mr. Errett O. Fuller, Laramie, Wyo- 

131. Mrs. Alice D. Bainum, Cheyenne, 

132. Mrs. J. H. Fullerton, Los Angeles, 

133. Miss Flo La Chapelle, Cheyenne, 

134. Mr. John Huuton, Torrington, Wyo- 

135. Mr. Malcolm Campbell, Casper, Wyo- 

136. Mr. E. H. Fourt, Lander, Wyoming. 

137. Mr. C. W. Horr, Douglas, Wyoming. 

138. Mr. Wm. Howard, Douglas, Wyo- 

139. Mr. J. H. Kennedy, Douglas, Wyo- 

140. Dr. J. M. Wilson, McKinley, Wyo- 

141. Mr. M. G. Howe, Orin, Wyoming. 

142. Mr. L. J. Swan, Douglas, Wyoming. 
U3. Mrs. Edwin L. Patrick, Torrington, 


144. Mrs. Ella J. Peters, Douglas, Wyo- 

145. Mr. J. M. Abney, Careyhurst, Wyo- 

146. Mr. Ed. Arnold, Lusk, Wyoming. 

147. Mrs. H. R. Lathrop, Casper, Wyo- 

148. Mr. J. C. Warklev, Casper, Wyoming. 

149. Mrs. J. H. Nichols, Pasadena, Cali- 

150. Mr. J. K. Moore, Fort Washakie, 

151. Mrs. Edward Ordway, Castroville. 

152. Miss Minnie Holden, Riverside, Wyo- 

153. Mrs. Margaret Hayden, Cody, Wyo- 

154. Mr. T. J. Bryant, Wheatland, Wyo- 

155. Mr. J. .L. Waller, Glenrock, Wyo- 

156. Mrs. Wallace C. Bond, Cheyenne, 

157. Mrs. E. C. Raymond, Newcastle, 

158. Mrs. W. S. Kimball, Casper, Wyo- 

159. Miss Evelyn Jensen, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

160. Mr. W. Jerome Dykeman, Casper, 

161. Mrs. Mae D. Paulsen, Cheyenne, 

162. Mr. Paul J. Paulsen, Cheyenne, 

163. Mr. E. B. Shaffner, Glenrock, Wyo- 

164. Mr. Alfred J. Mokler, Casper, Wyo- 

165. Mr. J. M. Lowndes, Casper, Wyo- 

166. Mrs. Vivien S. Richardson, Lovell. 

167. Mr. Charles R. Riley, Bristol, Con- 

168. Mr. Daniel B. Henderson, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

169. Mrs. Cora M. Beach, Casper, Wyo- 

1/0. Mr. Wm. J. Malone, Bristol, Con- 

171. County Superintendent of Laramie 
Schoob, Cheyenne, W T yo. 














Mr. L. C. Bishop, Douglas, Wyo- 

Mr. P. G. Fowler, Lingle, Wyoming. 
Mr. George Clark, Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Mr. O. N. Gibson, Riverton, Wyo- 

Mr. George T. Beck, Cody, Wyo- 

Mr. H. B. Robertson, Cody, Wyo- 

Mrs. Chas. Stone, Evanston, Wyo. 

Mrs. William Hines, Denver, Colo. 

Mrs. W. G. Johnson, Crowheart, 


Miss Minnie Haas, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Mr. Thomas Cooper, Casper, Wyo- 

Mrs. John Stoddard Logan, Green 

184. Mr. Oliver Hamm, Sheridan, Wyo- 

185. Dr. Laura White, Laramie, Wyo- 

186. Mrs. Emma Howell Knight, Laramie, 

187. Mrs. Fred Boice, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

188. Mr. Hugh Pendexter, Norwav, Maine. 

189. Mrs. Mabel D. Cassell, Greybull, 

190. Mrs. A. L. Coev, Green River, Wyo. 

191. Mrs. Charles D. Carey, Cheyenne, 

192. Mr. James Mackay, Chevenne, Wyo. 

193. Mr. R. C. Hargrave, Cody, Wyo. 

194. Miss Alice Williamson, Cheyenne, 

^ 195. Mrs. T. S. Taliaferro, Jr., Rock 
Springs. Wyo. 


Received from 
Hunton, Mr. John. 
Hebard, Dr. G. R.. 

Moore, J. K. 


..A collection of 67 original documents, noticed elsewhere. 

..Typed copy of original agreement betwen the firm "Sub- 
lette & Campbell" and Pittman Lindlay for "hunting, 
trapping and trading with the Indians." Date April 1, 

A very large collection of Wyoming data dating from 1900. 
The collection includes correspondence, statistics, clip- 
pings, etc.; while it treats primarily of Suffrage there 
is also much other valuable information for the research 
worker. This is a collection of Suffrage history which 
was sent from Washington to Dr. Hebard and which 
she presents to the State Historical Department. 

.Key to Picture history of "Chief Washakie." 

Historical Books 

Downing, C. O - Wyoming Legislative Proceedings, 2nd edition. 

Warren, Senator F. E Handbook of American Indians, by Bureau of Ethnology, 

two volumes. 

Thomas, Bishop N. S Record of Condition — District of Wyoming 1919. 

Wyoming Labor Journal Bound Volume for 1924 of Labor Journal. 


Moore, J. K Corlett to J. K. Moore 1876 (copy). 

Crain, C. N Civil War Letter, 1864 (copy). 

Original Manuscripts 

Rietz, Mrs. C. F One original manuscript. 

Dobbins, Mrs. Emma J One original manuscript. 

Coolidge, Mr. P. B Two bound volumes 10 songs, words of 9 songs by Mr. 

Coolidge of Lander, music by Frederick Boothroyd. 
Sloan, Austin C - Autobiography of Wm. K. Sloan, who crossed Wvoming in 


Hilton, Mrs. Agnes Four short manuscripts. 

Bryant, Mr. T. J Biographical manuscript of George H. Boswell. 

Knight, Mrs Emma Howell Manuscript. 

Hebard, Dr. Grace R Typescript copy — Fort Bridger (Chambers) Carlin's My 

Experiences in Wyoming. 


Durbin, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Five photos of "Buffalo Company" Volunteers for service 

in Spanish-American War. Major Wilhelm mustering 
officer. Pictures taken in Cheyenne on Capitol Avenue, 
May 10, 1898. 

Rummel, W. K One framed wall picture of "Jim Baker." 

Governor Nellie T. Ross Pen and penholder used by Governor Nellie Tayloe Ross 

when she signed her oath of office on January 5th, 1925. 

Meyer,. Ed One tin "McKinley" campaign badge. 

Conologue, Moneta Indian whetstone found on the divide between N. & S. Elk- 
horn Creeks near the John Moran ranch, a perfect 
specimen, found August 19th, 1924. 


ACCESSIONS— (Continued) 

Cristobal, Leopold G Collection of 160 coins, silver, nickel and gold. 

10 gold coins, from England, Germany, Sweden, Holland 
and France. 

5 silver and copper and nickel coins from Sweden. 

3, one Belgium, one silver Franc (old) 1 (new) nickel 

Franc, substitute for silver. 
2, one British India, two, 1 Rupee pieces, silver. 

6 Checkoslavokia, 4 silver, 2 copper. 

13, Italian, 2 silver 20 centimes, 3 copper, 5, 10 and 1 cen- 
times, 8 nickel pieces, 2 lire, 50 centimes, four 20 cen- 

1, Yugaslovonia. 

8, Denmark 1, 2 and 5 ore (copper) 10, 25 ore (nickel), three 
10 ore pieces. 

1, Mexico, 1 silver dollar. 

15, France, 5 in silver, 1 copper, 6 in nickel, 1 aluminum, 
2 copper and aluminum. 

18, Austria Hungary, no value and no longer used. Five are 
iron used during war because of lack of copper, 6 are 
copper, 1 silver, 6 nickel. 

24, Germany, silver, bronze-copper, iron, nickel and alum- 

5, Switzerland, 4 silver, 1 copper. 

4, Polish-Poland, 2 bronze, 2 copper. 

8, Norway, 1 silver, 2 copper, 2 nickel, 3 iron. 

2, Canada, silver 5 and 10 cents. 

13, England, silver, 2 half-crowns, 1 florin, 1 shilling, 3 six- 
pence, 2 3 cents, 2 copper half-penny, 2 copper, 1 penny. 
22, Netherlands, three 1 Gulden, six 25 cents, six 10 cents, 

all silver; two 2y 2 cents, two 1 cent, one nickel piece. 
A large part of this collection is from the coins used in the 
World War. 

IVesche, Mr. E Photo of Wyoming officers in the Spanish-American War. 

Picture taken in Manilla. 
Two water color pictures (large) of the first and second 
battles of Manilla Bay. Pictures are the work of Mr. 

rlartzell, William Three rifle shells, two shells to be used in French revolver 

(old), no longer used. Shell for Spencer Repeater, 

Hebard, Dr. Grace R Picture of Fort Laramie, Idaho Territory. 

Sec'y of State, F. E. Lucas Large framed wall picture of F. E. Mondell. 

War History 
Adjutant Gen., W. F.Davis Pension Commissioners Report, Volume 2, 1861-1865 Con- 
federate Kentucky Volume. 

Major C. G. Carroll History of Army Posts by Major Rudd, U. S. A. 

Myers, Mr. Ed Defensive measures against Gas attacks, 1917 — confidential. 

Wire entanglements, 1918 — official. 
Field Service Regulations, U. S. A. 1918. 
Infantry Drill Regulations, 1918 — confidential. 
The Deck and Boat Book of U. S. A. 1917. 

Senator F. E. Warren Historical Register and Dictionary of the U. S. Army, 1789- 

K03. Heitman, 2 volumes. 
Beach, Mrs. A. H A. L- A. Dept. of Wyoming, General Bulletin No. 5. 


Cowboys North and South, by Will James. 

Down the Yellowstone, by Freeman. 

Ethnology Bureau Report, 1897, 2 volumes. 

One group photo of Governor Ross signing oath of office. 

One group photo of the Collier Vote Trophy, showing Governor Ross, President Brown 
of Senate, Speaker Underwood of the House, Mayor Allison of Cheyenne and Brad- 
ford Ross, who unveiled the Trophy. 

Dne photo of Capitol Building taken from Airplane. 

Five photos of Fort Bridger (old). 

IVo photos of Fort Laramie in 1899. 

3ne 1875 map (Watson) of Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and Montana. 

Photostatic copies of addresses on envelopes and two letters signed bv Admiral Dewey 
after the battles of Manilla Bay, 1898. These letters are written to Mr. Wesche, com- 
plimenting him on his paintings of the two battles of Manilla Bay. 


Membership in Wyoming State Historical 

Annual dues one dollar ($1.00) paid in ad- 

The dues entitle members to all publications 
of the Department for the year without further 

Notice of delinquency will be sent from 
State Historical Department. 

When checks are used make payable to 
State Historical Society or to State Historian. 

Address : State Historian, Room 305, Capitol 
Building - , Cheyenne, Wyoming. 



DD 135 7ED b 




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